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Page No 66:

Question A1:

The literary sources for the Mauryan period include the Indika and the
a. rock edicts
b. Arthashastra
c. coins
d. pillar edicts.

Answer:

The correct option is (b).

Explanation: Indika was written by Megasthenes, a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period. He was the ambassador of Seleucus I of the Seleucid dynasty to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra.

The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit by Chanakya.

Page No 66:

Question A2:

________________ defeated Seleucus Nicator, a general of the Greek king Alexander.
a. Bindusara
b. Chanakya
c. Chandragupta Maurya
d. Bimbisara

Answer:

The correct option is (c).

Explanation: Chandragupta Maurya defeated Seleucus Nikator, a general of Alexander. Chandragupta fought to regain Alexander's satrapies. Seleucus I Nicator fought to defend these territories but both sides made peace in 303 BC. The treaty ended the Seleucid–Mauryan war and allowed Chandragupta to control the regions it was warring for.


 

Page No 66:

Question A3:

Under _______________, the Mauryan Empire spread across the whole of the Indian subcontinent, except for Kalinga and few kingdoms in the south.
a. Ajatashatru
b. Ashoka
c. Kautilya
d. Bindusara

Answer:

The correct option is (d).

Explanation: Bindusara inherited a large empire that consisted of what is now the northern, central and eastern parts of India along with parts of Afghanistan and Balochistan from his father, Chandragupta. Bindusara extended his empire further as far as south Mysore. He conquered 16 states and extended the empire from sea to sea. His empire comprised of the whole of India except Kalinga. Kalinga was conquered by his son Ashoka.

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Question A4:

Ashoka gave up the policy of conquest through war and began to follow a policy of conquest  through
a. negotiations
b. trade
c. dharma
d. sea routes

Answer:

The correct option is (c).

Explanation: After the Kalinga war in 261 BC, Ashoka gave up his policy of conquest through war and adopted a policy of conquest through dharma. In other words, the policy of dig-vijay was replaced with dhamma-vijay.

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Question A5:

Most of the edicts were in ______________ script.
a. Brahmi
b. Prakrit
c. Sanskrit
d. Kharoshthi

Answer:

The correct option is (a).

Explanation: Most Ashokan edicts were written in Brahmi script and in Prakrit language. This language was adopted by Ashoka because it was the language that was spoken by the common man, by the masses; in order to increase the spread and efficacy of his edicts, Ashoka used this language for inscribing his edicts, so that the message of dhamma could spread far and wide in his people.

Page No 66:

Question A6:

The ______________ was the head of the district.
a. Yukta
b. Rajuka
c. Senapati
d. Pradeshta

Answer:

The correct option is (d).

Explanation: Provinces were divided into districts. At the district level, the Pradeshta was the head of administration. He was assisted by yuktas and rajukas. They measured the land, collected taxes and maintained law and order.

Page No 66:

Question A7:

Land revenue was fixed between one-fourth and ______________ of the produce.
a. one-half
b. one-third
c. one-sixth
d. one-eighth

Answer:

The correct option is (c).

Explanation: Land revenue was the main source of revenue for the state. It was fixed between one-fourth and one-sixth of the produce, depending upon the fertility of the soil.

Page No 66:

Question B:

1. Respect only your own religion.            
2. Treat your servants and slaves harshly.            
3. What is a problem in itself; it is not a solution to any problem.            
4. Never give money to a poor man.            
5. Others have as much equal right to live as you.            

Answer:

1. This statement is false.

Explanation: Ashoka asked his people to respect all religions. He asked his people to follow the principles of dhamma, which included secularism and respect for all religions.

 

2. This statement is false.

Explanation: Ashoka asked his people to follow the principles of dhamma, which included following the principles of treating one’s slaves and servants with kindness.

 

3. This statement is true.

Explanation: After the Kalinga War of 261 BC, Ashoka realised the futility of war and started treating war as a problem, rather than as a solution. Ashoka gave up his policy of conquest through war and adopted a policy of conquest through dharma.
 

4. This statement is false.

Explanation: Ashoka asked his people to follow the principles of dhamma, which included charity and giving money to the poor.
 

5. This statement is true.

Explanation: Ashoka asked his people to follow the principles of dhamma, which included treating others equally and accepting the fact that everyone has equal rights to live.



Page No 67:

Question C:

Seven virtues, recommended by Emperor Ashoka, are hidden in this word search. Find them.

 
D E F N V D Z E M K F S
L T L U N A T X D I F X
W O B J C K J B K N M P
Z L A G I C U V Y D Y T
P E A C E I E Z L N Q E
T R U T H F U L N E S S
R A B P G A R O J S W K
H N Q O R A H I M S A H
S C H A R I T Y G N C M
R E S P E C T Q I D W H

Answer:

Following are the words hidden in the word search:

1. Peace

2. Truthfulness

3. Respect

4. Ahimsa

5. Tolerance

6. Kindness

7. Charity

Page No 67:

Question D1:

What do the Indika and the Arthashastra tell us about the Mauryas?

Answer:

The main source of information on the Mauryas are through two books:

1. Indika, written by Megasthenes, tells us about the social, political and economic life of the people during the Mauryan times.

2. Arthashastra by Kautilya deals with governance of an empire. It describes the administration of the Mauryas.

Page No 67:

Question D2:

When was the Kalinga War fought? Why did Ashoka attack Kalinga?

Answer:

When Ashoka became the king, Kalinga was the only kingdom that was not under Mauryan control. Kalinga was important because it controlled the land and sea routes to south India and south-east Asia. In 261 BC, Ashoka attacked Kalinga and conquered it after a fierce battle.

Page No 67:

Question D3:

What was Dhamma?

Answer:

Dhamma is a Prakrit word, which is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘dharma’ meaning religious duty. Dhamma did not involve worship of Gods or the performance of sacrifices. Instead, Dhamma was a code of conduct and morals such as charity, kindness, benevolence and tolerance, to be followed.


 

Page No 67:

Question D4:

What do you know about the central administration of the Mauryas?

Answer:

Mauryan administration can be divided into four divisions: central, provincial, district and village.

At the central level, the king was the supreme authority. He took all the important decisions of the empire. In this task, he was aided and advised by a council of ministers.

Page No 67:

Question E1:

Why was the Kalinga War a turning point in the life of Ashoka?

Answer:

When Ashoka became the king, Kalinga was the only kingdom that was not under Mauryan control. Ashoka attacked Kalinga and conquered it after fighting a tough war.

But this battle proved to be a turning point in Ashoka’s life. He was saddened by the death and suffering caused by the war. He realised that war was a futile affair that only led to death and sadness.

After the war, Ashoka gave up his policy of conquest through war (dig-vijaya) and began to follow a policy of conquest through dharma (dharma-vijaya). The spread of dharma became the goal of Ashoka’s life.


 

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Question E2:

What were the welfare measures adopted by Ashoka?

Answer:

For Ashoka, the citizen were just like his own children. The well-being of his children was his responsibility. He took a number of measures to promote welfare of his citizen. Some of these are as follows:

  1. Good roads were built and trees were planted on both sides of the roads.

  2. Rest-houses were constructed for travellers, along the roads.

  3. A large number of wells were dug.

  4. Hospitals, for both people and animals, were constructed.


 

Page No 67:

Question E3:

Write any two steps taken by Ashoka to spread Dhamma.

Answer:

Dhamma means religious duty. It was Ashoka's desire that his citizen should understand the concept of rightful living and practise it to the fullest. In order to spread dhamma, he took the following steps:

a. Edicts containing the principles of dhamma were issued by Ashoka. These edicts were engraved on rocks and pillars and were placed throughout the kingdom at public places like markets and temples.

b. Ashoka appointed officials known as dharma mahamatras to spread dhamma. These officials went from place to place and propagated the message of dhamma. Some even went outside the country to places like Sri Lanka, Myanmar, South-East and central Asia, etc.

Page No 67:

Question E4:

Write short notes on – Administration of Pataliputra, Sources of revenue.

Answer:

1) The administration of Patliputra, the capital of the Mauryan Empire, was carried out through a 30-member committee. This committee was divided into six boards, which catered to specific departments of

a. comfort and safety of foreigners

b. registration of births and deaths

c. industry

d. trade and commerce

e. inspection of goods

f. collection of taxes


2) The most important source of income was the land revenue. Usually it was fixed at one-fourth to one-sixth of the produce. However, this revenue was fixed according to the fertility of the soil. Apart from land tax, trade was also an important source of revenue. The Mauryans flourished due to the practise of both inland and overseas trade. Mines, custom duties, gifts and water tax were also significant revenue sources.

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Question E5:

It is said that Ashoka was the first king who spoke directly to his people. How did he do this

Answer:

Ashoka was the first king to speak directly to his people. He achieved this through his edicts. These edicts contained the various principles of dhamma that he wanted his people to learn and apply in their lives.

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Question E6:

Why do you think the Mauryan kings employed spies?

Answer:

Every kingdom faces the danger of revolts from the opponents. This could have been possible during the Mauryan times too, where the kingdom was so far-stretched. To control irrational dissent, first hand information of such plotting was essential. Thus, there was a need of spies.



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