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Page No 84:

Question A1:

Tamilakam or the Tamil region, known today as South India, lies south of the ____________ river.
a. Yamuna
b. Krishna
c. Godavari
d. Mahanadi

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The Tamilakam or the Tamil region, known today as south India, lies south of the Krishna river. This river divides India into two halves, south and north. The source of information about this period are available in the Sangam literature. 

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Question A2:

The word ________________ means assembly.
a. Tamilakam
b. Chera
c. sangam
d. Pandya

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The term sangam implies assembly or association. Almost 2,200 years ago, the Tamil scholars and poets gathered together and composed poems and thesis, which is complied in the form of Sangam literature. 

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Question A3:

The most powerful Chola ruler was
a. Karikala
b. Nedunchezhyan
c. Neduncheraladan
d. Kanishka

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Karikala was the most powerful ruler of the Chola empire. He fought against the Cheras and the Pandyas. Karikala is also believed to have worked hard to enhance trade between different territories. 

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Question A4:

The _________________ kingdom was famous for pearls.
a. Chola
b. Chera
c. Pandyan
d. Mauryan

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Pandyan kingdom was very famous for pearls. These pearls were an important source of trade link between the kingdom and Rome.

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Question A5:

During the reign of, ________________, the Fourth Buddhist Council was held in Kashmir.
a. Karikala
b. Kanishka
c. Ashoka
d. Neduncheraladan

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Kanishka, a Kushana ruler, was deeply influenced by Buddhism. He patronised monks and gave them donations. During his reign, a Buddhist Council was organised in Kashmir, which is referred to as Fourth Buddhist Council. The Council gathered around 500 monks under the patronage of the great scholar Vasumitra. 

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Question A6:

______________ was the most powerful ruler of the Satavahanas.
a. Sri Satakarni
b. Vasishthiputra Pulumayi
c. Yajnasri Satakarni
d. Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni was an important ruler of Satavahana kingdom who fought several wars to enlarge the empire. 

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Question A7:

Nagarjunakonda and ______________ were famous centres of the Buddhist culture.
a. Madurai
b. Pratisthana
c. Purushapura
d. Amaravati

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Nagarjunakonda and Amravati were the famous centres of Buddhist culture in India. A specific style of art developed in Amaravati. The Satavahanas patronised the Amaravati School. Later, the Ikshvakus continued to support this school. 

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Question A8:

Emperor Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to _____________ to spread Buddhism.
a. Sri Lanka
b. Java
c. Bamiyan
d. Nagarjunakonda

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: In his later life, Ashoka became highly inclined towards Buddhism. He appointed dhammamahamattas to spread Buddhism far and wide. His son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra were also sent to the far off land Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.

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Question B:

Given below are five stages in the silk-making process. Arrange them in the correct order by numbering them.

Silk fibre is obtained by unwounding cocoons

Silk fibres are joined together to make threads

Silkworms made cocoons

Cocoons are put in boiling water

Silkworms are reared

Answer:

The correct order of the five stages in the silk-making process is as follows:

  1. Silkworms are reared.
  2. Silkworms made cocoons.
  3. Cocoons are put in boiling water.
  4. Silk fibre is obtained by unwounding cocoons.
  5. Silk fibres are joined together to make threads.
Explanation: Silk making is a complex mechanism. Around 5,500 silk worms are required to get 1 kg of raw silk. 



Page No 85:

Question C1:

What were the Cheras also known as? Write what you know about Neduncheraladan.

Answer:

The Cheras were also known as Keralaputras. They ruled over the over Kerala and some parts of Tamil Nadu.

Neduncheralathan was a very famous Chera ruler.  Sources inform that the mighty ruler had moved in war with the Cholas and the Pandyas. As a brave ruler, Neduncheralathan had also captured the Roman fleet. 

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Question C2:

Who was Nedunchezhyan? Write what you know about him.

Answer:

Nedunchezhiyan was one of the most significant ruler of the Pandyan dynasty. He is known to have fought against the Cheras and the Cholas and defeated both of them. He encouraged art and literature. The third Sangam that was held at Madurai is believed to have been convened during his rule.

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Question C3:

Why was the Silk Route called so? How did the rulers try to control the Silk Route?

Answer:

The Silk Route was called so because the main item of trade along his route was silk itself. Chinese were the first to produce and trade silk through this Silk Route.
 
The Silk Route was like a profit-earning avenue for the different kingdom lying on its way. Therefore, they tried to gain control over this route. One of the best way to control this route was by providing protection to the traders from the attacks of the robbers. In return of the protection, the merchant used to pay the rulers with handsome sum of money. This way both ruler and merchants benefitted. The merchants got the protection and the rulers got the control over this valuable trading route. 

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Question C4:

What major changes did Hinduism undergo during this period?

Answer:

During this period, Hinduism had undergone variety of changes. One of the most significant change that the importance associated with rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices lessened. Instead of superstitions, focus now shifted to bhakti, i.e. loving devotion to God. Bhagawat Gita got prominence during this period of  Indian history.

Page No 85:

Question D1:

How did Kanishka patronize Buddhism?

Answer:

Kanishka was an important Kushana ruler. He was deeply influenced by Buddhism. His contribution towards Buddhism can be understood with the following points:

  • He patronised Buddhist monks. He donated money to build Buddhist monasteries.
  • His court comprised learned Buddhist scholars like Parsva, Nagaijuna and Ashvaghosha
  • He convened the Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir where scholars met and discussed several issues regarding the course of Buddhism in India.
  • He patronised the Gandhara school of Buddhist art.
  • Coins were issued with the image of Buddha. 

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Question D2:

Trade was an important activity during this period. Explain this statement with examples.

Answer:

The post-Mauryan period is significant for the drastic rise in trading activities. The item of trading was not only the agricultural produce but also luxury goods such as pearls and everyday-used goods such as spices. Several kingdoms of this period were involved in excellent trading activities. The most prominent of them all were the Kushanas, Satavahanas and the Indo-Greeks. Broach, Kalyan and Sopara emerged as important trading ports. Things were no different in the northern kingdoms. Taxila, Ujjain and Mathura emerged as important trading centres. 
The Silk Route also rose to prominence during this time. The route by which the Chinese traders carried silk to the western kingdoms became a coveted possession of many native rulers. The native rulers extended aid and protection to the traders in return of prizes. All such activities suggest that trading was indeed an important activity of this period. 

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Question D3:

How did Buddhism spread to other lands? Give your answer with special reference to the work of the missionaries, pilgrims and travellers.

Answer:

With the gradual spread of Buddhism to distant lands, India got in touch with the foreign lands. For example, Afghanistan became an important centre of Buddhism. This spread of Buddhism cannot be attributed to one person or authority rather it was the collective efforts of the missionaries, pilgrims and travellers who were patronised by the ruler.

The most important work was done by the missionaries sent by Ashoka to central Asia in order to spread the teachings of Buddha. Even, Kanishka, a Kushana ruler, sent missionaries to spread the idea that Buddha was a god on earth and his idols were made to worship across the world. Pilgrims and travellers travelled through the Silk Route to spread the Buddhist ideologies. For example, a Buddhist monk Kumarajiva went to China and stayed there for several years to spread Buddhism.

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Question D4:

Write short notes on – Kingdoms of the south, The Silk Route.

Answer:

1) Kingdoms of the South: The southern kingdoms of the post-Mauryan period comprised Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.

Cheras: The Cheras were also known as Keralaputras. They ruled over Kerala and some parts of Tamil Nadu. Vanji was the capital of the Cheras. There are references of continuous strife of the Cheras with Cholas and Pandyas. Trade was an important aspect of this dynasty. Sources inform that Cheras had trade relations with Rome and Egypt.
Neduncheralathan was a very famous Chera ruler. Sources inform that the mighty ruler had moved in war with the Cholas and the Pandyas. As a brave ruler, Neduncheralathan had also captured the Roman fleet. 


Cholas: The Cholas were the most powerful dynasties of south India. Their capital was Uraiyur. Karikala is believed to have been the most powerful Chola ruler. He fought against the Cheras and the Pandyas. He also worked hard to enhance the trade between different territories. 

Pandyas: Pandyas ruled the present day area of Madurai. Known for their excellent trading activities, pearl was the most important item of their export. Nedunchezhiyan was one of the most significant ruler of the Pandyan dynasty. He is known to have fought against the Cheras and the Cholas and defeated both of them. He encouraged art and literature. The third Sangam that was held at Madurai is believed to have been convened during his rule.

2) The Silk Route: The Silk Route was called so because the main item of trade along his route was silk itself. Chinese were the first to produce and trade silk through the Silk Route.
 
The Silk Route was like a profit-earning avenue for the different kingdom lying on its way. Therefore, they tried to gain control over this route. One of the best way to control this route was by providing protection to the traders from the attacks of the robbers. In return of the protection, the merchant used to pay the rulers with handsome sum of money. This way both ruler and merchants benefitted. The merchants got the protection and the rulers got the control over the valuable trading route. 

Page No 85:

Question D5:

Why were sangams organized?

Answer:

Historians believed that Sangams were organised to produce high-quality literary works. The Sangams were the assemblies of eminent scholars and poets. The work produced in these Sangams have often been referred to as the greatest Tamil creation of all ages. Thus, the Sangam age is also known as the golden period of Tamil literature. The Sangam literature is an important source of history to understand the Tamil society and culture that is 2000 years old.

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Question D6:

The post-Mauryan period saw the rule of the Indo-Greeks, Shakes, Pahlavas and the Kushanas in North India. What does it tell you about the political condition of North India?

Answer:

The post-Mauryan period saw the rule of the Indo-Greeks, Shakas, Pahlavas and the Kushanas in North India. This tells us that there was no central authority that could keep the country together at the face of foreign invasions. The small dynasties remained engulfed in their mutual petty warfare, giving the chance to the aliens to invade the land. It can be stated that the lack of an united approach provided chance to the foreigners to establish their rule in the Indian soil. 



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