Basic Science Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 13 Weather, Climate And Adaptations are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Weather, Climate And Adaptations are extremely popular among Class 7 students for Science Weather, Climate And Adaptations Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Basic Science Book of Class 7 Science Chapter 13 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Basic Science Solutions. All Basic Science Solutions for class Class 7 Science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 129:

Question A.1:

Answer:

Weather can be defined as local atmospheric or climatic conditions prevailing over a specific area for a given period of time, such as a few hours or a day.

Page No 129:

Question A.2:

Weather can be defined as local atmospheric or climatic conditions prevailing over a specific area for a given period of time, such as a few hours or a day.

Answer:

Three things that determine the climate of a place are:

(i) latitude
(ii) altitude i.e. height above sea level
(iii) proximity with the sea

Page No 129:

Question A.3:

Three things that determine the climate of a place are:

(i) latitude
(ii) altitude i.e. height above sea level
(iii) proximity with the sea

Answer:

Maximum-minimum thermometers are used to measure the maximum and minimum temperature through the day.

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Question A.4:

Maximum-minimum thermometers are used to measure the maximum and minimum temperature through the day.

Answer:

Xerophytes have spongy stems to store water and their leaves are modified into spines to reduce water loss by transpiration.

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Question A.5:

Xerophytes have spongy stems to store water and their leaves are modified into spines to reduce water loss by transpiration.

Answer:

A simple rain gauge consists of a graduated cylinder or a jar, with a funnel as a collector fitted to its mouth.

Page No 129:

Question A.6:

A simple rain gauge consists of a graduated cylinder or a jar, with a funnel as a collector fitted to its mouth.

Answer:

The flowering plants of the polar regions are short-lived and complete their life cycle before the winter arrives; before winter, there is enough water and exposed soil for them to thrive.

Page No 129:

Question A.7:

The flowering plants of the polar regions are short-lived and complete their life cycle before the winter arrives; before winter, there is enough water and exposed soil for them to thrive.

Answer:

An elephant has the following adaptations that help it survive in its habitat:
(a) It has large ears that keep radiating heat from its body.
(b) It has a trunk that helps it sprinkle water over its body.

Page No 129:

Question B.1:

An elephant has the following adaptations that help it survive in its habitat:
(a) It has large ears that keep radiating heat from its body.
(b) It has a trunk that helps it sprinkle water over its body.

Answer:

Cities have fewer number of trees than rural areas. Trees provide shade and create a cooling effect through transpiration, thus keeping the villages cooler than the cities. Moreover, the concrete ground in the cities absorbs more heat than soil and retains it for a longer period of time. Therefore, cities are warmer than the surrounding rural areas.

Page No 129:

Question B.2:

Cities have fewer number of trees than rural areas. Trees provide shade and create a cooling effect through transpiration, thus keeping the villages cooler than the cities. Moreover, the concrete ground in the cities absorbs more heat than soil and retains it for a longer period of time. Therefore, cities are warmer than the surrounding rural areas.

Answer:

Hygrometer is used to measure the relative humidity.
Hygrometer is a simple instrument consisting of two thermometers. The bulb of one of the thermometers is wet and shows a lower temperature than the other one. This cooling effect on the wet thermometer is the result of evaporation. The dryer the weather, the more the evaporation and so the greater the difference in the temperature recorded by the thermometers. This difference in temperature can be used to measure the relative humidity.

Page No 129:

Question B.3:

Hygrometer is used to measure the relative humidity.
Hygrometer is a simple instrument consisting of two thermometers. The bulb of one of the thermometers is wet and shows a lower temperature than the other one. This cooling effect on the wet thermometer is the result of evaporation. The dryer the weather, the more the evaporation and so the greater the difference in the temperature recorded by the thermometers. This difference in temperature can be used to measure the relative humidity.

Answer:

Polar bears and penguins develop a very thick layer of subcutaneous fat under their skins during  summer. This layer of fat keeps them warm and also provides them with energy, protecting them form starvation in winter. Animals such as polar bears hibernate, that is, they sleep during the extreme cold of the winter to save energy and to protect themselves from the cold.
Conifers have conical leaves that let the snow falling on them slide off. Conifers are evergreen because in temperate regions, the conditions are dry and there is limited supply of sunlight. Retaining the same leaves requires lesser energy than shedding the existing leaves and growing new ones.

Page No 129:

Question B.4:

Polar bears and penguins develop a very thick layer of subcutaneous fat under their skins during  summer. This layer of fat keeps them warm and also provides them with energy, protecting them form starvation in winter. Animals such as polar bears hibernate, that is, they sleep during the extreme cold of the winter to save energy and to protect themselves from the cold.
Conifers have conical leaves that let the snow falling on them slide off. Conifers are evergreen because in temperate regions, the conditions are dry and there is limited supply of sunlight. Retaining the same leaves requires lesser energy than shedding the existing leaves and growing new ones.

Answer:

Camels have the following adaptations that help them to survive in the deserts:
(i)  Camels have long eyelashes that protect their eyes from sand.
(ii) Camels have broad feet that help them in reducing the pressure on the sand and moving swiftly without their feet getting sunk in the sand.  
(iii) The hump of a camel can store a large amount of fat, which allows it to go without food for many days.
(iv) Camels can drink a huge amount of water at once and can store it in their body. They pass dry excreta and urinate very less often. This helps them to conserve water in their body.

Page No 129:

Question B.5:

Camels have the following adaptations that help them to survive in the deserts:
(i)  Camels have long eyelashes that protect their eyes from sand.
(ii) Camels have broad feet that help them in reducing the pressure on the sand and moving swiftly without their feet getting sunk in the sand.  
(iii) The hump of a camel can store a large amount of fat, which allows it to go without food for many days.
(iv) Camels can drink a huge amount of water at once and can store it in their body. They pass dry excreta and urinate very less often. This helps them to conserve water in their body.

Answer:

The adaptation of animals that help them to hide in their surroundings is called disruptive colouration. This gives them an advantage while hunting for prey. It also confuses their hunters by blending the appearance of their body with the surroundings using patterns or colours similar to that of the surroundings.

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Question B.6:

The adaptation of animals that help them to hide in their surroundings is called disruptive colouration. This gives them an advantage while hunting for prey. It also confuses their hunters by blending the appearance of their body with the surroundings using patterns or colours similar to that of the surroundings.

Answer:

Clouds approach the mountains from the windward side. They are laden with moisture when they come in contact with the mountains. When the mountains come in contact with the clouds, they push them up, causing condensation that results in rain. When these clouds reach the other side, i.e. the leeward side of the mountains, they do not have enough moisture to cause rain. Thus, the leeward side of the mountains do not receive as much rain as the windward side. 

Page No 129:

Question C.1:

Clouds approach the mountains from the windward side. They are laden with moisture when they come in contact with the mountains. When the mountains come in contact with the clouds, they push them up, causing condensation that results in rain. When these clouds reach the other side, i.e. the leeward side of the mountains, they do not have enough moisture to cause rain. Thus, the leeward side of the mountains do not receive as much rain as the windward side. 

Answer:

The animals in the tropical rainforests try to overcome this competition by dividing their habitat in layers or strata.

The topmost stratum or the canopy of trees is occupied by the most active birds, monkeys, lizards, snakes and insects. The middle stratum is occupied by animals such as the jaguar and the Nilgiri langur. Arboreal (living on trees) carnivores usually occupy this stratum to remain hidden while keeping an eye on a broad region in search of their prey. The lowermost layer or the forest floor is occupied by larger animals such as bears, pythons, baboons and gorillas.

Page No 129:

Question C.2:

The animals in the tropical rainforests try to overcome this competition by dividing their habitat in layers or strata.

The topmost stratum or the canopy of trees is occupied by the most active birds, monkeys, lizards, snakes and insects. The middle stratum is occupied by animals such as the jaguar and the Nilgiri langur. Arboreal (living on trees) carnivores usually occupy this stratum to remain hidden while keeping an eye on a broad region in search of their prey. The lowermost layer or the forest floor is occupied by larger animals such as bears, pythons, baboons and gorillas.

Answer:

Relative humidity can be defined as the percentage of the maximum amount of humidity that the air or atmosphere can hold at a particular temperature. It is the measure of the moisture content in the air over a region at a given time.

Air is said to be saturated when it has the maximum amount of moisture it can hold at a particular temperature, i.e. when the relative humidity is 100% or very close to it. Saturated air cannot hold any more moisture for a given temperature.

The amount of moisture that the air can hold depends on the temperature. Warmer air can hold more moisture. Cooler air leads to the condensation of vapour, causing rain. Thus, when air is saturated and the temperature suddenly drops, the vapours condense and come down as rain.

Page No 129:

Question D:

Relative humidity can be defined as the percentage of the maximum amount of humidity that the air or atmosphere can hold at a particular temperature. It is the measure of the moisture content in the air over a region at a given time.

Air is said to be saturated when it has the maximum amount of moisture it can hold at a particular temperature, i.e. when the relative humidity is 100% or very close to it. Saturated air cannot hold any more moisture for a given temperature.

The amount of moisture that the air can hold depends on the temperature. Warmer air can hold more moisture. Cooler air leads to the condensation of vapour, causing rain. Thus, when air is saturated and the temperature suddenly drops, the vapours condense and come down as rain.

Answer:

1. The climate of a place is its average weather pattern.
2. Rainfall is generally measured in millimetres.
3. The large ears of elephants help them radiate heat.
4. The capacity of air to hold water vapour increases with temperature.
5. Tigers can retract their claws.
6. Birds, insects and mammals are some animals that migrate to avoid harsh climatic conditions.



Page No 130:

Question E:

1. The climate of a place is its average weather pattern.
2. Rainfall is generally measured in millimetres.
3. The large ears of elephants help them radiate heat.
4. The capacity of air to hold water vapour increases with temperature.
5. Tigers can retract their claws.
6. Birds, insects and mammals are some animals that migrate to avoid harsh climatic conditions.

Answer:

A B
(a) Equatorial (iii) broad - leafed evergreen trees
(b) Tropical (i) deciduous trees
(c) Cool temperature (v) conifers
(d) Polar (ii) mosses
(e) Desert (iv) cacti

Page No 130:

Question F.1:

A B
(a) Equatorial (iii) broad - leafed evergreen trees
(b) Tropical (i) deciduous trees
(c) Cool temperature (v) conifers
(d) Polar (ii) mosses
(e) Desert (iv) cacti

Answer:

(b) upper lip and nose
The trunk of an elephant is a modification of its upper lip and nose.

Page No 130:

Question F.2:

(b) upper lip and nose
The trunk of an elephant is a modification of its upper lip and nose.

Answer:

(c) having different food preferences
In tropical grasslands, grazers and browsers cope with the competition for food by having different food preferences.

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Question F.3:

(c) having different food preferences
In tropical grasslands, grazers and browsers cope with the competition for food by having different food preferences.

Answer:

(a) fog
When water vapours condense near the ground, they cause fog.

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Question F.4:

(a) fog
When water vapours condense near the ground, they cause fog.

Answer:

(d) all of these
Closeness to the sea, presence of mountains and winds, all these factors contribute to the amount of rainfall at a place.



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