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Page No 79:

Question A.1:

The type of digestion in amoeba is
(a) extracellular
(b) intracellular
(c) intercellular
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) intracellular
    Digestion in amoeba is intracellular.

Page No 79:

Question A.2:

Fungi are
(a) saprophytic
(b) parasitic
(c) photosynthetic
(d) insectivorous

Answer:

(a) and (b)
Some fungi are parasitic, while others are saprophytic. Hence, both (a) and (b) are correct.

Page No 79:

Question A.3:

Silk thread is collected from the cocoons by a process called
(a) grading
(b) reeling
(c) sorting
(d) scouring

Answer:

(b) reeling
    Silk thread is collected from the cocoon of silk worms by the process of reeling.

Page No 79:

Question A.4:

Land breezes and sea breezes are caused due to
(a) conduction
(b) convection
(c) radiation
(d) ventilation

Answer:

(b) convection
Land and sea breezes are caused due to convection.

Page No 79:

Question A.5:

The methyl orange solution turns red in
(a) acids
(b) bases
(c) neutral substance
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) acids
     Methyl orange solution turns red when mixed with an acid.

Page No 79:

Question B:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Insectivorous plants feed on insects to get ............................. compounds.
2. In amoeba the pseudopodia close to form a small cavity called ............................. .
3. ............................. bacteria are present in the root nodules of ............................. plants.
4. In Faharenheit scale the lower fixed point is taken as ............................. .
5. ............................. is used for making glucose from starch.

Answer:

  1. Insectivorous plants feed on insects to get nitrogenous compounds.
  2. In amoeba the pseudopodia close to form a small cavity called food vacuole.
  3. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are present in the root nodules of leguminous plants.
  4. In Fahrenheit scale the lower fixed point is taken as melting point of pure ice.
  5. Saliva is used for making glucose from starch.

Page No 79:

Question C:

Match the columns:

Column A Column B
1. Aqua regia (a) Photosynthesis
2. Autotrophic (b) Methyl orange
3. Villi (c) Hydrochloric acid
4. Indicator (d) Absorption
5. Chlorophyll (e) Nutrition

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Aqua regia (c) Hydrochloric acid
2. Autotrophic (e) Nutrition
3. Villi   (d) Absorption
4. Indicator (b) Methyl Orange
5. Chlorophyll (a) Photosynthesis

Page No 79:

Question D:

Write True (T) or False (F):
1. Nutrition in paramecium takes place through pseudopodia. ( )
2. Egestion means removing undigested food from the body in the form of faeces. ( )
3. Sulphuric acid is a hydrating acid. ( )
4. Mercury sticks to the wall of the thermometer.
5. Indicators are substances which show a change in colour when brought in contact with acids and bases.

Answer:

1. (F)
    Nutrition in paramecium takes place through cilia, with the help of which it ingests food.

2. (T)

3. (T)

4. (F)
    Mercury does not stick to the walls of a thermometer.

5. (T)



Page No 80:

Question E:

Mark the different organs of digestive system in the picture given below:
Figure

Answer:

  1. Pharynx
  2. Oesophagus
  3. Stomach
  4. Pancreas
  5. Liver
  6. Gall Bladder
  7. Small Intestine
  8. Large Intestine
  9. Rectum 
  10. Anus

Page No 80:

Question F.1:

Define nutrition. Explain the process of nutrition in amoeba.

Answer:

Nutrition is a process by which a living organism takes in food and utilises it to derive energy. The organism requires energy for its growth and overall development.
Nutrition in amoeba also follows the steps listed:

  1. Ingestion: The  amoeba engulfs food particles using its pseudopodia. It forms a food vacuole around the food particle.
  2. Digestion: The food is then digested within the food vacuole by digestive enzymes. The digestion occurs within the cell and is known as intracellular digestion.
  3. Absorption: The digested food spreads out throughout the amoeba from the food vacuole by the process of diffusion.
  4. Assimilation: The absorbed food is then used to provide energy for life processes.
  5. Egestion: When a large amount of undigested food material is left in the amoeba, the cell wall ruptures and the waste material is thrown out of its body.

Page No 80:

Question F.2:

What are villi? What is their location and function?

Answer:

Villi are small finger-like projections.These are found on the inner walls of the small intestine.Villi increase the effective surface area of the small intestine, by enabling more efficient absorption of nutrients from digested food.

Page No 80:

Question F.3:

How does sea breeze occurs?

Answer:

Sea breeze is a wind current that blows from the sea towards land. During the day, the land heats up more quickly than the sea. As a result, the air above the land becomes warmer than the air over the sea and rises upward, creating a region of lower pressure over the land. Cooler winds then blow in from the sea to the land.

Page No 80:

Question F.4:

What is an alkali? Give two examples.

Answer:

Bases that dissolve in water are called alkalis. Examples of alkalis are sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.

Page No 80:

Question F.5:

Define temperature.

Answer:

Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object.

Page No 80:

Question G.1:

Define mutualism. Explain it with an example.

Answer:

Mutualism or symbiosis is the association of two organisms, such that both are benefited from the association. An example of mutualism is the association of algae and fungi to form lichens. In lichens, algae provide food for the fungi, while the fungi provide water and hospitable conditions for the algae.

Page No 80:

Question G.2:

How do ruminants digest  cellulose?

Answer:

Ruminants possess a rumen (which is a compartment of the stomach) that contains protozoa and cellulose digesting bacteria. These bacteria and protozoa help ruminants in breaking down cellulose.

Page No 80:

Question G.3:

Describe in brief the life cycle of a silkworm.

Answer:

Stages in the life cycle of a silk worm are as follows:

1. Laying of eggs: The female silk worm lays many tiny eggs.

2. Larvae (or caterpillars): Black worms called larvae (or caterpillars) are hatched out of the eggs. These larvae feed on mulberry leaves for four weeks, during which they shed their skin four times in a process called moulting. After the larvae grows, it stops eating and weaves a net around itself. It secretes a protein fibre by swinging its head either side which solidifies on exposure to air and becomes silk fibre.

3. Cocoon: This is the pupa stage where the silk worm completes the formation of a cocoon in a week (under ideal conditions). These cocoons are sent for processing to produce silk cloth.

4. Silk moth: Pupae inside the cocoon develops into silk moths and the life cycle of the silk worm is completed.

Page No 80:

Question G.4:

Explain the process of digestion in ruminants.

Answer:

The stomach of a ruminant is divided into four chambers. As soon as the ruminant swallows the food, it enters the first chamber called rumen where it gets partially digested (converted to cud). From here, the food enters the second chamber from where it again reaches the mouth for rumination (which is the process of chewing the cud). The food is again swallowed, after which it enters the third and the fourth chamber for digestion. From here, it enters the small intestine for the absorption of nutrients.

Page No 80:

Question G.5:

In an experiment, phenolphthalein was added to caustic soda. What will happen if dilute hydrochloric acid is added to this mixture? Explain.

Answer:

When phenolphthalein indicator is added to caustic soda, the indicator turns pink. Upon addition of dilute hydrochloric acid, the mixture will become increasingly acidic. In an acidic solution, the indicator turns colourless. Therefore, by the addition of dilute hydrochloric acid to caustic soda containing phenolphthalein, the pink colour disappears and the solution turns colourless.



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