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Page No 168:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:

figure

Across
3. Platelets of blood
4. This tissue carries food inside the plants
5. Harmless waste product formed inside the plant

Down
1. Red blood cells
2. White blood cells

Answer:



Page No 169:

Question B.1:

The smallest functional unit of kidney is
(a) nephron
(b) urethra
(c) capillary
(d) ureter

Answer:

(a) nephron

The smallest functional unit of the kidney is nephron.

Page No 169:

Question B.2:

Which component of blood helps in clotting?
(a) RBC
(b) WBC
(c) platelets
(d) plasma

Answer:

(c) platelets

Platelets help in clotting of blood.

Page No 169:

Question B.3:

The cause of wilting of plant is
(a) more absorption
(b) more transpiration
(c) low respiration
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) more transpiration

Plants wilt if they transpire more water than they could absorb.

Page No 169:

Question B.4:

Blood from the lungs enters the heart through the
(a) pulmonary artery
(b) pulmonary vein
(c) aorta
(d) vena cava

Answer:

(b) pulmonary vein

Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart through the pulmonary vein.

Page No 169:

Question B.5:

Pumping station of blood is
(a) heart
(b) blood vessel
(c) auricle
(d) ventricle

Answer:

(a) heart

The heart is responsible for pumping blood in the body.

Page No 169:

Question B.6:

Transport of materials in unicellular organisms is performed by the process of
(a) diffusion
(b) circulation
(c) effusion
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) diffusion

In unicellular organisms, transport of materials is performed by the process of diffusion.

Page No 169:

Question B.7:

Transport of water and minerals from roots to leaves in plants is through
(a) xylem
(b) phloem
(c) cambium
(d) stomata

Answer:

(a) xylem

Xylem transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.

Page No 169:

Question B.8:

In plants excess amount of carbon dioxide escapes through the
(a) stomata
(b) xylem
(c) phloem
(d) cambium

Answer:

(a) stomata

In plants, excess carbon dioxide is released through the lenticels and the stomata.

Page No 169:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Arteries carry ........................ blood and veins carry ........................ blood.
2. ........................ is the excretory organ present in earthworms.
3. Kidney is made up of tiny structures called ........................ .
4. The liquid part of the blood is called ........................ .
5. ........................ is a process of giving blood to a needy person.

Answer:

1. Arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins carry de-oxygenated blood.
2. Nephridia is the excretory organ present in earthworms.
3. Kidney is made up of tiny structures called nephrons.
4. The liquid part of the blood is called plasma.
5. Transfusion is a process of giving blood to a needy person.

Page No 169:

Question D:

Match the items in Column A with the items in Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Transpiration (a) WBC
2. Excretion (b) RBC
3. Translocation (c) Stomata
4. Erythrocytes (d) Kidney
5. Leucocytes (e) Xylem
  (f) Phloem

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Transpiration (c) Stomata
2. Excretion (d) Kidney
3. Translocation   (f) Phloem
4. Erythrocytes (b) RBC
5. Leucocytes (a) WBC



Page No 170:

Question 1:

Why do plants will on hot summer days?

Answer:

On hot summer days, the amount of water lost by a plant (due to transpiration) exceeds the amount of water absorbed by its roots. As a result, the plant loses water and wilts.

Page No 170:

Question 2:

Why do amoeba and paramecium not have a proper circulatory system?

Answer:

Amoeba and Paramaecium are unicellular organisms, and the single cell that makes up the organism is in direct contact with the surroundings. Therefore, there is no need of a circulatory system for the transport of nutrients or waste products.

Page No 170:

Question 3:

What would happen if there were no platelets in the blood?

Answer:

Platelets are responsible for the clotting of blood. If there are no platelets in blood, then blood will not clot and a person can bleed to death even from small wounds.

Page No 170:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Movement of water through xylem occurs due to transpiration pull. ( )
2. The haemoglobin-containing component of blood is platelets. ( )
3. Erythrocytes fight against harmful germs in the body. ( )
4. In a normal person the heart beats about 72 time per minute. ( )
5. Blood clotting is a useful natural process in human beings. ( )

Answer:

1. True (T)

2. False (F)
    The haemoglobin-containing component of blood is RBC.

3. False (F)
    Leucocytes help in fighting harmful germs in the body.

4. True (T)

5. True (T)

Page No 170:

Question F:

Look at the figure given below and label it correctly:

Body tissues, Pulmonary vein, Lungs, Brain tissues, Deoxygenated blood, Aorta, Superior vena cava, Oxygenated blood, Inferior vena cava, Pulmonary artery

figure

Answer:

(a) Superior vena cava
(b) Brain tissues
(c) Pulmonary artery
(d) Lungs
(e) Aorta
(f) Deoxygenated blood
(g) Pulmonary vein
(h) Inferior vena cava
(i) Oxygenated blood



Page No 171:

Question A.1:

What do you mean by ureotelic animals?

Answer:

Animals that excrete nitrogenous wastes as urea are known as ureotelic animals.

Page No 171:

Question A.2:

Name the two tissues of plants which transport materials.

Answer:

Xylem and phloem are the two plant tissues that transport materials.

Page No 171:

Question A.3:

Name the vein which carries oxygenated blood.

Answer:

The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood.

Page No 171:

Question A.4:

Where are nephrons found in human body?

Answer:

Nephrons are found in the kidney of the human body.

Page No 171:

Question A.5:

Name the haemoglobin-containing part of the blood.

Answer:

The haemoglobin-containing constituent of blood are called erythrocytes, or the red blood cells.



Page No 172:

Question A.6:

What is a heartbeat?

Answer:

The periodic expansion and contraction of the heart is known as a heartbeat.

Page No 172:

Question A.7:

Where is the dirty blood of our body filtered?

Answer:

The dirty blood of our body is filtered in the kidney.

Page No 172:

Question A.8:

Define dialysis.

Answer:

Dialysis is the process of cleaning blood of a person with damaged kidneys to get rid of waste substances.

Page No 172:

Question B.1:

What will happen if there are no platelets in the blood?

Answer:

If there are no platelets in the blood, clotting of blood would not occur. That is, even a small injury would lead to excess loss of blood and a very high risk of bleeding to death.

Page No 172:

Question B.2:

Why is blood needed by all parts of the body?

Answer:

Blood is needed by all parts of the body because it serves the following functions:

  1. Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and takes away carbon dioxide to the lungs for exhalation.
  2. Blood transports nutrients absorbed from food to every cell in the body.
  3. Blood transports a number of hormones and necessary chemicals.
  4. Blood transports metabolic wastes to the excretory organs for excretion.
  5. Blood helps protect the body against foreign microorganisms.

Page No 172:

Question B.3:

How does ascent of sap occur in plants?

Answer:

In plants, water absorbed by the root hair is transported upwards from the root, then through the stem and finally to the leaves by the xylem. Most of the water is released from the leaves as water vapours by the process of transpiration. This causes more water to rise up in the stem, which also carries nutrients with it. The water-containing nutrients is known as sap and the rising of sap is known as ascent of sap.

Page No 172:

Question B.4:

What is pulse and pulse rate?

Answer:

When the heart pumps blood into arteries, the arteries rhythmically stretch and relax.This stretching and relaxing of the arteries is felt as a throbbing called the pulse.
The number of beats or pulses generated per minute is known as the pulse rate.

Page No 172:

Question B.5:

What role do blood banks play in human health?

Answer:

Blood banks, usually attached to hospitals, categorise and store different types of blood. This blood is made available to patients in emergencies such as accidents and surgeries to ensure that the patient gets a timely transfusion of blood of the correct group.

Page No 172:

Question B.6:

Write any two differences between movement of materials through xylem and phloem.

Answer:

Movement in Xylem Movement in Phloem
It is the movement of minerals and water from the roots to the leaves in plants. It is the movement of materials between different parts of a plant.
Movement in the xylem is unidirectional. Movement in the phloem can be bidirectional.

Page No 172:

Question B.7:

State two vital functions of kidney.

Answer:

The two useful functions of the kidney are as follows:

  1. They help in eliminating toxic metabolic wastes from the body.
  2. They help in the formation of urine.

Page No 172:

Question B.8:

What is the composition of urine?

Answer:

Urine is a yellowish liquid that contains water (96%), urea (2.5%) and mineral salts (1.5%), in addition to compounds of sodium and potassium.

Page No 172:

Question B.9:

What is transpiration? Why is it important for plants?

Answer:

Plants use only about 5% of the water they absorb through their roots. The rest is expelled out to the atmosphere as water vapour by the aerial parts of the plant by the process of transpiration.
As water evaporates, more water and nutrients are drawn up by the roots. Thus, transpiration helps in the absorption of nutrients from the roots.

Page No 172:

Question C.1:

State four function of blood.

Answer:

Following are the four functions of blood:

  1. It helps to maintain a constant body temperature.
  2. It helps to transport oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues.
  3. It takes blood-containing metabolic wastes to the kidney.
  4. Platelets in the blood help in clotting of blood in case of injuries.

Page No 172:

Question C.2:

With the help of a diagram, explain the human excretory system.

Answer:


The excretory system is made up of the following parts:

(a) Kidney: The human body has a pair of kidneys, one on each side of the vertebral column. Each kidney is about 150 g in weight, 12 cm in length, 6 cm in width and 3 cm in thickness.

(b) Ureter: The ureters are a pair of thin-walled urinary ducts that originate in the kidney. Each ureter is about 30 cm in length. The ureter runs into the urinary bladder.

(c) Urinary bladder: The urinary bladder is a bag-like structure that stores urine prior to its removal through the urethra.

(d) Urethra: The urethra is the duct that discharges urine out of the body.

Page No 172:

Question C.3:

State four differences between arteries and veins.

Answer:

Arteries Veins
They are thick-walled. They are thin-walled.
Arteries lie deep under the skin. Veins are superficial and lie just beneath the skin.
Arteries do not have valves. Veins have valves.
All arteries, except the pulmonary artery, carry oxygenated blood. All veins, except the pulmonary vein, carry deoxygenated blood.

Page No 172:

Question C.4:

What are capillaries? Why do they have thin walls?

Answer:

Arteries divide into a fine network of blood vessels that can penetrate tissues known as capillaries. The thin walls of the capillaries allow transfer of nutrients, gases and other materials between the blood in the capillaries and the surrounding tissues.

Page No 172:

Question C.5:

Distinguish between RBC and WBC.

Answer:

RBC WBC
They contain haemoglobin. They are devoid of haemoglobin.
RBCs do not contain a nucleus. WBCs contain a nucleus.
RBCs transport oxygen from the lungs to various parts of the body. WBCs protect the body from infections.

Page No 172:

Question C.6:

Explain how the transportation of water, minerals and food takes place in plants.

Answer:

Roots of the plants absorb water and minerals. Root hairs present in the roots maximise the surface area of the roots for absorption of water and the minerals dissolved in the water. The water and the dissolved minerals move from the root hair to the xylem in the roots. The water then moves up the stem through the xylem because of the force developed in the leaves due to transpiration known as the transpiration pull. Transpiration pull drives up water and dissolved minerals (sap) through the stem known as ascent of sap.
Some of the water absorbed and carbon dioxide taken in from air are used in the process of photosynthesis in leaves to produce food. This food is then transported to all parts of the plant through the phloem by the process of translocation.

Page No 172:

Question C.7:

Explain how blood is circulated in the body.

Answer:

Blood circulation can be understood through the following steps:

  1. Deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body enters the left auricle of the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava.
  2. From the right auricle, the blood is pumped into the right ventricle; from there, it is pumped to the lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary artery.
  3. After oxygenation in the lungs, blood returns to the left auricle of the heart through the pulmonary vein.
  4. From the left auricle, the blood enters the left ventricle, and it is then pumped to all parts of the body through the aorta.
  5. The aorta branches into major arteries, minor arteries and, finally, capillaries as it enters tissues.
  6. The blood in the capillaries delivers nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and picks up carbon dioxide and waste products.
  7. The wastes are filtered out in the kidneys and the deoxygenated blood returns to the right auricle. This cycle is repeated through out the life of an individual.

Page No 172:

Question C.8:

List the components of blood. Mention their functions.

Answer:

The components of blood and their functions are as follows:

  1. Red blood cells or erythrocytes: Red blood cells contain haemoglobin. Red blood cells are responsible for the transportation of oxygen to all parts of the body.
  2. White blood cells or leucocytes: White blood cells are larger than RBCs and are devoid of haemoglobin. These blood cells are the soldiers of the body and protect the body against invading micro-organisms.
  3. Platelets: Platelets help in clotting of blood in the event of an injury.
  4. Plasma: Plasma is the straw-coloured liquid constituent of blood that transports nutrients as well as metabolic waste products.



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