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Page No 184:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:

figure

Across
2. Part of ovary where fertilization takes place
4. Female organ of the flower
5. Male organ of the flower

Down
1. An example of bulb
3. An example of corm

Answer:

Page No 184:

Question B.1:

A method in which roots are initiated on the stem while it is still attached with the parent plant is called
(a) grafting
(b) budding
(c) layering
(d) tissue culture

Answer:

(c) layering

In layering, the plant is bent downward towards the ground and covered with soil. The branch develops roots and is then separated from the parent plant to grow as an individual plant.

Page No 184:

Question B.2:

Yeast reproduces by
(a) budding
(b) spore formation
(c) binary fission
(d) fragmentation

Answer:

(a) budding
Yeasts reproduce by a process called budding.



Page No 185:

Question B.3:

Pollen grains are produced in
(a) stigma
(b) filament
(c) anther
(d) style

Answer:

(c) anther

Pollen grains are produced in the anthers.

Page No 185:

Question B.4:

Seeds in a fruit develop from
(a) ovule
(b) stigma
(c) ovum
(d) pollen grains

Answer:

(a) ovule

After fertilisation, the ovule develops into a seed. The ovary becomes the fleshy fruit.

Page No 185:

Question B.5:

Seeds and fruits dispersed by wind have
(a) wings
(b) hairs
(c) censer mechanism
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) All of these

Seeds and fruits dispersed by the wind have wings, hair and censor mechanisms.

Page No 185:

Question B.6:

Ferns, mosses, lichen and fungi reproduce through
(a) spore formation
(b) binary fission
(c) budding
(d) fragmentation

Answer:

(a) spore formation

Ferns, mosses and lichens reproduce through the formation of spores.

Page No 185:

Question B.7:

Bougainvillea grow from
(a) layering
(b) grafting
(c) budding
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) layering
Bougainvilleas grow by layering.

Page No 185:

Question B.8:

A plant can be grown from tissue culture is
(a) orchid
(b) pear
(c) grapevine
(d) cherry

Answer:

(a) orchid

Orchids are cultivated by tissue culture.

Page No 185:

Question B.9:

Stigma, style and ovary are the parts of
(a) androecium
(b) gynoecium
(c) anther
(d) sepals

Answer:

(b) gynoecium

The stigma, style and ovary are parts of the gynoecium.

Page No 185:

Question B.10:

Which does not belong to bisexual flower?
(a) mustard
(b) rose
(c) petunia
(d) papaya

Answer:

(d) papaya

Flowers of papaya are unisexual.

Page No 185:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Mass of cells in tissue culture is called ............................... .
2. Two kinds of pollination are ............................... and ............................... .
3. On fertilisation, ovary is transformed into ............................... .
4. Some common methods of asexual reproduction are ............................... and ............................... .
5. Transfer of pollens from ............................... to ............................... is called pollination.

Answer:

  1. Mass of cells in tissue culture is called callus.
  2. Two kinds of pollination are self pollination and cross pollination.
  3. On fertilisation, the ovary is transformed into a fruit.
  4. Some common methods of asexual reproduction are budding and fragmentation.
  5. Transfer of pollens from the anther to stigma is called pollination.

Page No 185:

Question D:

Match the items in Column A with the items in Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Tuber (a) Colocasia
2. Bulb (b) Rose
3. Rhizome (c) Onion
4. Corm (d) Bryophyllum
5. Leaves (e) Ginger
  (f) Potato

Answer:

Column A Column B
1.Tuber   (f) Potato
2. Bulb (c) Onion
3. Rhizome (e) Ginger
4. Corm   (a) Colocasia
5. Leaves   (d) Bryophyllum

Page No 185:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Fertilisation occurs after pollination in plants. ( )
2. Stamen is the male organ of the flower. ( )
3. Self-pollination is better than cross-pollination. ( )
4. Ovule turns into seeds after fertilisation. ( )
5. Ginger and turmeric are rhizomes. ( )

Answer:

1. True (T)

2. True (T)

3. False (F)
    Both self pollination and cross pollination have advantages and disadvantages.

4. True (T)

5. True (T)



Page No 186:

Question 1:

Esparto grass is a tenacious, creeping plant with hard, stiff, need-like blades that curl up through lack of moisture. The fibres from the leaves are used to make something on which we write. What is it?

Answer:

The fibres from the leaves of the esparto grass are used in the manufacture of high-quality paper.

Page No 186:

Question 2:

Why does idle batter become fluffy after exposing it in open air for a long time?

Answer:

Yeast grows in the idli batter when it is left exposed to air for a long time and causes the batter to ferment. The gases released during the fermentation process make the batter fluffy.

Page No 186:

Question 3:

Why are flowers that are pollinated by insects brightly coloured or sweet-smelling?

Answer:

Flowers are brightly coloured and sweet-smelling so as to attract insects to facilitate pollination.

Page No 186:

Question F:

Label the given diagrams and then match the column given below:

figure
 

Column A Column B
1. Ovary (a) Contains pollen grains.
2. Pollen grain (b) Develop into seeds
3. Stigma (c) Contains ovules
4. Anther (d) Secretes nutrients for pollen grains.
5. Ovule (e) It produces male gametes

Answer:


 

Column A Column B
1. Ovary (c) Contains ovules
2. Pollen grain (e) It produces male gametes
3. Stigma (d) Secretes nutrients for pollen grains
4. Anther (a) Contains pollen grains
5. Ovule   (b) Develops into seeds



Page No 187:

Question A.1:

Name four modified underground stems which can propagate vegetatively.

Answer:

The following are modified underground stems that can propagate vegetatively:

  1. Potato
  2. Ginger
  3. Turmeric
  4. Garlic

Page No 187:

Question A.2:

How is bryophyllum plant propagated?

Answer:

Bryophyllum propagates through the formation of buds on leaf margins. These buds then detach from the leaf, fall to the ground and grow into new plants.

Page No 187:

Question A.3:

Define self-pollination.

Answer:

Self-pollination refers to the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower of the same plant.

Page No 187:

Question A.4:

What is binary fission?

Answer:

Binary fission is a method of asexual reproduction in which two daughter organisms of the same size are formed through the division of the parent organism.

Page No 187:

Question A.5:

Give an example of a tuber.

Answer:

The most common example of a tuber is the potato.

Page No 187:

Question A.6:

Name an organism which reproduces by budding.

Answer:

Yeast reproduces by budding.

Page No 187:

Question A.7:

Name a plant which reproduces by spores.

Answer:

Ferns reproduce via spores.

Page No 187:

Question A.8:

What is the mode of reproduction in spirogyra?

Answer:

Spirogyra reproduces by fragmentation.

Page No 187:

Question A.9:

What is the name of male and female organs of a flower?

Answer:

The male organ of a flower is known as the stamen, while the female organ is known as the pistil.

Page No 187:

Question A.10:

Name one plant whose fruits have a fibrous coat which makes them float in water.

Answer:

The coconut is an example of a fruit with a fibrous coat, which helps it float on water.



Page No 188:

Question B.1:

What is grafting?

Answer:

Grafting refers to the process of artificial vegetative propagation in plants in which a stem cutting from the desired plant (scion) is inserted in a rooted plant (stock), which is resistant to diseases. Then, they are bound firmly with tape or cloth so that they have vascular continuity. Examples include rose, mango and citrus.

Page No 188:

Question B.2:

What is tissue culture?

Answer:

Tissue culture refers to the method of artificial propagation of plants in which the cells or tissues are taken from a plant under sterile conditions. These cells or tissues are then kept in test tubes containing a culture medium, where they grow into an undifferentiated mass of tissue known as the callus. The callus is then transferred to another medium that induces the formation of plantlets. These plantlets can then be transferred to pots and grown into new plants. This method is used for the propagation of chrysanthemum, asparagus and orchids.

Page No 188:

Question B.3:

What is the significance of dispersal of seeds and fruits?

Answer:

Plants, unlike animals, cannot move from place to place. Seeds and fruits are dispersed to far off places to reduce competition among plants for sunlight, water, minerals and space. Therefore, in the absence of a dispersal of seeds and fruits, young plants will be forced to grow in the vicinity of their parents, thereby facing competition for light and resources.

Page No 188:

Question B.4:

What is pollination?

Answer:

The process by which pollen grains are transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of the same or another flower is known as pollination.

Page No 188:

Question B.5:

What are the different types of pollination found in flowering plants?

Answer:

The different types of pollination found in flowering plants are:

  • Self-pollination
  • Cross-pollination

Page No 188:

Question B.6:

What is layering?

Answer:

Layering refers to the process of vegetative propagation in which the branch of a plant is bent and covered with moist soil called a mound. After a few days, roots arise from the underground portion; it separates from the parent plant and grows independently. Examples include jasmine, strawberry and bougainvillea.

Page No 188:

Question B.7:

What is the function of pollens in flowering plants?

Answer:

The main function of pollen grains in flowering plants is to transfer the male gametes to the stigma of a flower. Hence, they help in reproduction in flowering plants. A pollen tube is formed and the male gametes are carried to the ovule for fertilisation.

Page No 188:

Question B.8:

Give two advantages of vegetative propagation.

Answer:

The advantages of vegetative propagation are as follows:

  1. The daughter plants are identical to the parent plants.
  2. It gives faster results.

Page No 188:

Question C.1:

Distinguish between unisexual and bisexual flowers.

Answer:

Unisexual flowers Bisexual flowers
Unisexual flowers contain either the androecium or the gynoecium but never both. Bisexual flowers contain both the androecium and gynoecium.
Eg.: Curcubita, papaya and mulberry. Eg.: Mustard, rose and petunia.

Page No 188:

Question C.2:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of cross-pollination?

Answer:

The advantages of cross pollination are as follows:

  1. There is enhanced vigour in the off-spring.
  2. Variations are continuously produced, maximising the chances of a well adapted off-spring.
The disadvantages of cross pollination are as follows:
  1. Pollination is not definite and depends upon agencies such as wind, water, insects and animals.
  2. Since a lot of pollen is destroyed in transit, large quantities of pollen must be produced.
  3. Flowers must be large and colourful with a lot of nectar to attract insects, which is not economical.

Page No 188:

Question C.3:

Explain how budding sometimes results in a chain of cells in yeast.

Answer:

Yeast reproduces by budding. In budding, an outgrowth known as a bud appears on the parents' body, which eventually detaches to form a separate organism. However, in some cases, the bud may not detach from the parent till it matures. This process can be repeated to get a chain of yeast cells.

Page No 188:

Question C.4:

Why are artificial vegetative reproductive methods so commonly used nowadays?

Answer:

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for food and other plant-based resources. Vegetative reproductive methods allow a simple, fast and economical method to increase production. As a result, these methods are increasingly used nowadays.

Page No 188:

Question C.5:

What is the main difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?

Answer:

Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction
It involves only one parent. It involves two parents.
It does not involve formation of male and female gametes. It involves formation of male and female gametes.

Page No 188:

Question C.6:

Make a labelled diagram of the flower showing reproductive parts in it.

Answer:

Page No 188:

Question C.7:

Explain the parts of the androecium and gynoecium.

Answer:


The androecium contains one or more tube-like stamens. Each stamen consists of a thin stalk known as the filament and a ​
two-lobed head known as the anther. The anther contains pollen grains that produce the male gametes.



The gynoecium is the female reproductive organ. It consists of the stigma, the style and the ovary. During pollination, pollen grains are deposited on the stigma. The style is a long tube that leads down to the ovary, which contains ovules.

Page No 188:

Question C.8:

How is fertilisation brought about in a flower?

Answer:

The process of fusion of the male and female gametes is known as fertilisation. It occurs after pollination.
After the pollen grains reach the stigma, the pollen tube grows and reaches the ovary that passes through the style. The male cell travels down the pollen tube and fuses with the egg cell in the ovule.

Page No 188:

Question C.9:

Write a short note on fruit and seed formation.

Answer:

After fertilisation, i.e. after the fusion of the male (pollen) and female (ovule) gametes:

(i) The ovary gives rise to the fruit while the other structures of the flower fall down. Thus, the fruit is a ripened ovary.

(ii) The ovules present inside the ovary develop into seeds. Seeds contain an embryo, which is protected by the seed coat.



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