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Page No 150:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:

figure

Across
1. Air holes present in cockroaches
4. Tiny air sacs of lungs
5. This is not required for anaerobic respiration
6. Organs on the leaf for exchange of exchange of gases in plants

Down
2. Giving out of carbon dioxide rich air
3. The other name of windpine

Answer:



Page No 151:

Question B.1:

Which one of the following can respire in the absence of oxygen?
(a) fish
(b) frog
(c) yeast
(d) man

Answer:

(c) yeast
Yeast is a unicellular organism that can respire in the absence of oxygen.

Page No 151:

Question B.2:

An animal breathe through skin as well as lungs is
(a) frog
(b) earthworm
(c) snail
(d) fish

Answer:

(a) frog

Frog is an animal that breathes through skin as well as lungs.

Page No 151:

Question B.3:

During inhalation the diaphragm moves
(a) upwards
(b) downwards
(c) towards left
(d) towards right

Answer:

(b) downwards

During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downwards.

Page No 151:

Question B.4:

During exhalation the ribcage moves
(a) upward and outward
(b) downwards and inwards
(c) from side to side
(d) does not move at all

Answer:

(b) downwards and inwards

During exhalation, the ribcage moves downwards and inwards because the intercostal muscles relax.

Page No 151:

Question B.5:

The air sacs at the end of the smallest air tubes inside the lungs are called
(a) alveoli
(b) bronchi
(c) bronchioles
(d) larynx

Answer:

(a) alveoli

The air sacs at the end of the smallest air tubes inside the lungs are called alveoli.

Page No 151:

Question B.6:

Glucose is oxidised to ethyl alcohol in
(a) aerobic respiration
(b) anaerobic respiration
(c) both of these
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) anaerobic respiration

Glucose is oxidised to ethyl alcohol in anaerobic respiration.

Page No 151:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. All living organisms require ......................... to perform life functions.
2. ......................... is breaking down of food within the cells to release energy.
3.  The first phase of respiration is known as .........................  .
4. The first of respiration is known as .........................  .
5. Fermentation occurs in the ......................... of oxygen.

Answer:

1. All living organisms require oxygen to perform life functions.
2. Cellular respiration is breaking down of food within the cells to release energy.
3. The first phase of respiration is known as breathing.
4. Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky.
5. Fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen.

Page No 151:

Question D:

Match the items in Column A with the items in Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Stomata (a) Earthworm
2. Gills (b) Man
3. Tracheal tubes (c) Plants
4. Lungs (d) Fish
5. Skin (e) Cockroach
  (f) Amoeba

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Stomata (c) Plants
2. Gills (d) Fish
3. Tracheal tubes (e) Cockroach
4. Lungs (b) Man
5. Skin (a) Earthworm



Page No 152:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Respiration is faster than combustion. ( )
2. Larynx produces sound. ( )
3. Exhaled air contains more oxygen than inhaled air. ( )
4. Exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli of lungs. ( )
5. Earthworms respire through moist skin. ( )

Answer:

1. False (F)
Respiration is slower than combustion.

2. True (T)

3. False (F)
   Exhaled air contains more of carbon dioxide gas while inhaled air contains more oxygen.

4. True (T)

5. True (T)

Page No 152:

Question F:

Label the figure given below and then match the columns:

figure
 

Organ Function
1. Nasal cavity (a) Covered with membrane called pleura
2. Trachea (b) Also produce sound
3. Lungs (c) Branches to form bronchioles
4. Larynx (d) Warms and filters air
5. Bronchi (e) 12 cm long muscular tube

Answer:


 

Organ Function
1. Nasal cavity (d) Warms and filters air
2. Trachea (e) 12 cm long muscular tube
3. Lungs (a) Covered with membrane called pleura
4. Larynx (b) Also produce sound
5. Bronchi (c) Branches to form bronchioles

a. Nose
b. Nasal cavity
c. Nostril
d. Epiglottis
e. Larynx
f. Cartilaginous ring
g. Trachea
h. Bronchus
i. Pleura
j. Heart
k. Bronchiole
l. Lungs
m. Diaphragm



Page No 153:

Question 1:

Cut the broad end of a carrot. It is green in colour. Immerse it in water. After two or three days you will notice young green branches growing from is. Cam you give the reason for it?

Answer:

A carrot has small microscopic hair branching out from the outer layer (epidermis) of its body. The hair comprises the remaining parts of the root system that can absorb water and minerals when immersed in water. The layer below the epidermis is called cortex. This layer is dark orange in colour and its main purpose is to store starch. The central core, which is light orange in colour, contains a water-conducting tissue that transports water and minerals from the root to the leaf. When we cut the broad part of the carrot and immerse it in water, the central core transports the water and minerals and the cortex surrounding the central tissue transports sugar to the green part. The transportation of water, minerals and starch by the tissues along with the small hair can lead to the growth of young green branches.

Page No 153:

Question 2:

Name an organism which can live without oxygen.

Answer:

Yeast is a single-celled organism that can live without oxygen through anaerobic respiration.

Page No 153:

Question 3:

Why do we feel hungry after a heavy physical exercise?

Answer:

When we perform heavy physical exercise, the body utilises large amount of energy in the form of stored food in our body. As large amounts of food reserves are burnt up to supply energy to our body during exercise, we feel hungry after the exercise.



Page No 154:

Question A.1:

Why do body cells require oxygen?

Answer:

Body cells require oxygen to release energy produced by oxidising the glucose in the cells. This energy released is utilised for carrying out all the functions of the body.

Page No 154:

Question A.2:

How is oxygen transported to each and every cell on the body?

Answer:

Oxygen is transported from the lungs to every cell of the body by haemoglobin, a protein molecule found in the red blood cells.

Page No 154:

Question A.3:

Which organ do earthworms use for gaseous exchange?

Answer:

Earthworms exchange gases through their moist skin.

Page No 154:

Question A.4:

How do unicellular organisms exchange gases with the environment?

Answer:

Unicellular organisms, such as Amoeba, exchange gases with the environment through their cell membrane or general body surface.

Page No 154:

Question A.5:

Name the process by which energy is released from the digested food.

Answer:

Respiration is the process by which energy is released from the digested food.

Page No 154:

Question A.6:

What is tidal volume?

Answer:

The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal respiration at one go is called tidal volume.

Page No 154:

Question A.7:

What happens to your breathing rate when you do exercise?

Answer:

When we exercise, breathing rate increases to generate more energy; that is, to increase the amount of oxygen intake to the lungs.

Page No 154:

Question B.1:

Why should be breathe air through nose and not mouth?

Answer:

We should inhale air through the nose and not mouth because the nose contains hair and mucus that help in purifying the inhaled air by trapping dust particles and harmful agents. This function of the nose protects us from various infections.

Page No 154:

Question B.2:

Distinguish between respiration and combustion.

Answer:

Respiration Combustion
Respiration is a slow process and takes place at normal temperature. Combustion is a relatively fast process and needs high temperature.
Breakdown of food and release of energy involves multiple steps. Breakdown of fuel into carbon dioxide and water takes place in a single step with sudden release of energy.
Energy is obtained in the form of a chemical molecule. Energy is obtained in various forms such as light and heat.

Page No 154:

Question B.3:

List one way in which we make use of anaerobic respiration.

Answer:

Heavy weightlifting is a strenuous physical activity during which our muscles make use of anaerobic respiration to generate more energy.

Page No 154:

Question B.4:

How do insects respire?

Answer:

Respiration in insects takes place through a network of tubes called trachea, in their body. These tubes open through pores or holes called spiracles, located in the thorax and abdomen of the insect, which help in the exchange of gases.

Page No 154:

Question B.5:

Write two differences between breathing and respiration.

Answer:

Breathing Respiration
Breathing is a physical process in which oxygen-rich air is taken in and carbon dioxide-rich air is given out. Respiration is a biochemical process in which glucose is oxidised and metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide and water are released.
Breathing occurs outside the cells and there is no release of energy. Respiration occurs inside the cells and involves the breakdown of food using oxygen to convert it into energy.

Page No 154:

Question B.6:

Under what conditions does anaerobic respiration take place in humans?

Answer:

Anaerobic respiration takes place in the body when oxygen supply is not enough for the complete breakdown of glucose to meet our energy needs. During strenuous physical activities such as running, heavy weightlifting or cycling, our muscles work harder and require a lot of energy. But as the supply of oxygen is limited, our muscles switch to anaerobic respiration to produce more energy.

Page No 154:

Question C.1:

How can you get relief from muscular cramps? Explain.

Answer:

Muscular cramps occur because of formation of lactic acid in the muscles as a result of anaerobic respiration. When supply of oxygen is insufficient to our muscles during strenuous physical activities, muscles undergo anaerobic respiration. This anaerobic respiration results in partial breakdown of glucose into lactic acid and causes muscle cramps.
We get relief from muscular cramps after a hot water bath or a massage. It is because it improves the blood circulation, thereby improving the supply of oxygen to the muscles. As the supply of oxygen increases, lactic acid breaks down completely to release energy along with carbon dioxide and water. As a result, the muscles relax and the cramps get relieved.

Page No 154:

Question C.2:

How is oxygen in the air reaches the cells of our body? Describe

Answer:

The air that we breathe in contains oxygen. When oxygen enters the lungs, it reaches the alveoli. As alveoli contain more oxygen than blood capillaries, oxygen moves from alveoli to the blood capillaries and combines with haemoglobin (a red pigment in the blood) and forms oxyhaemoglobin. This oxyhaemoglobin reaches all the cells of our body through the blood and combines with food to release energy required to perform various life processes.



Page No 155:

Question C.3:

Draw a neat labelled diagram of respiratory system of man.

Answer:

Page No 155:

Question C.4:

What is stomatal apparatus? List its role in respiration.

Answer:

Stomata are the tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves. Stomata, along with the surrounding cells, form the stomatal apparatus. It comprises stomatal aperture or stoma, guard cells, subsidiary cells and epidermal cells.

Role of stomata in respiration:
Stomata trap air and help in the exchange of gases inside the plant cells. The large intercellular spaces in the leaves help in the easy exchange of gases by diffusion.

Page No 155:

Question C.5:

Explain the process employed to obtain ethyl alcohol from glucose.

Answer:

Fermentation is the process in which ethyl alcohol is obtained from glucose in the absence of oxygen. It is a kind of anaerobic respiration.
It releases energy by the breakdown of carbohydrates under the action of certain microorganisms that can metabolise sugar (glucose) and produce alcohol or acids in the absence of oxygen.
During the process, carbon dioxide gas is evolved. The chemical equation of the reaction is given below:

    C6H12O6     →      2C2H5OH      +       2CO2       +      Energy
     Glucose           Ethyl alcohol      Carbon dioxide

Page No 155:

Question C.6:

Explain the mechanism of breathing?

Answer:


Breathing is the process of taking in oxygen-rich air into the lungs and giving out carbon dioxide-rich air. Following two processes are involved during breathing:

(a) During inhalation, the diaphragm moves down and the ribs move upwards and outwards, thereby increasing the space in the chest cavity. This leads to the movement of air inside the lungs.

(b) During exhalation, the diaphragm moves to its former position and the ribs move downwards and inwards, thereby reducing the size of the chest cavity. This leads to the movement of air out of the lungs.



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