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Question A.1:

State government makes the policies for the entire country.

Answer:

The statement is false.

Explanation - The state government operates within the limits set by the constitution. It can make policies for its own state and not beyondit . This power cannot be taken away by the central government.

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Question A.2:

The council of ministers in a state consists of the chief minister and the ministers appointed by hum.

Answer:

The statement is false.

Explanation - The council of ministers comprises the chief minister and other ministers.These ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister.
 

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Question A.3:

Legislative Assemble, is a permanent house that cannot be dissolved.

Answer:

The statement is false.

Explanation -The term of the legislative assembly is five years. It can be dissolved by the governor before its term. The legislative council, on the other hand, is a permanent house that cannot be dissolved. This is because one-third of its members retire every two years and are replaced by newly elected members.

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Question A.4:

Legislative Council passes the money bill.

Answer:

This statement is false.

Explanation - The legislative council cannot pass the money bill. Even for any ordinary bill that is introduced, the will of the legislative assembly prevails.

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Question B.1:

What is the organisation of state government?

Answer:

The organisation of the state government includes the governor, the state legislature and the council of ministers. In the state legislature, there are two houses, the legislative council (Vidhan Parishad) and the legislative assembly(Vidhan Sabha). The council of ministers consists of the chief minister and other ministers who are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The elected state government has to prove its majority in the legislative assembly.

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Question B.2:

How are the powers of the state government different from the powers of the Union Government?

Answer:

A clear division of powers exists between the state government and the union government, as demarcated by the constitution. There are three lists that divide the powers between the two. These are the state list, the union list and the concurrent list.
The powers of the state government are mentioned in the state list. The subjects on which the state government can make laws are maintaining law and order in the state, health, police, transport, land policies, etc.
The powers of the union government are mentioned in the union list. The subjects on which the union goverment can make laws are of national importance. These are railways, currency, external affairs, defence, banking, post and telegraph, etc.
At the time of emergency, laws concerning the state can be made by the central government.
The subjects mentioned in the concurrent list are education, forest, electricity, labour welfare, etc. The union as well as the state government can make laws on these subjects.

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Question B.3:

Mention a few important subjects of the Union and State list.

Answer:

Laws mentioned in the union list  are on the subjects are of national importance and can be only made by the union government .These subjects are defence, external affairs, railways, communication, banking, post and telegraph.

The subjects mentioned in the state list are maintaining law and order in the state, police, health, transport, land policies, etc. These laws can be made by the state government.

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Question B.4:

How does the Legislative Assembly control the Council of Ministers?

Answer:

The legislative assembly controls the council of ministers in the following ways:
1. The council of ministers are asked questions by the legislative assembly.
2. The problems in the administration are pointed out by the assembly.
3. Resignation of a particular minister maybe demanded by the assembly.
4. A 'no-confidence motion' may be passed by the assembly against the council of ministers. This may lead to the resignation of the entire ministry if it fails to survive such motion.

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Question B.5:

Who appoints the Governor of a state? How long does he remain in power?

Answer:

 The governor of the state is appointed by the president of the country. The governor is generally the head of one state; however, sometimes he/she can head more than one state.

The governor remains in power for five years. He may be removed from office by the president before the completion of  his term.

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Question B.6:

"The Chief Minister is the link between the Governor and the Council of Ministers". How?

Answer:

The chief minister is the head of the council of ministers. He is also the link between the governor and the council of Ministers in the following ways:
1. He communicates all the decisions of the council of ministers to the governor.
2. He provides information to the governor about the administration of the state.

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Question C.1:

Bring out a few differences between the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.

Answer:

 

Legislative Assembly Legislative Council
1. The members of the legislative assembly are elected directly by the people of the state. The members of the legislative council are representatives of the local self-governing bodies, teachers, university graduates. One-third of its members are elected by the Assembly. Some are nominated by the Governor.
2. The members must not be less than 25 years in age. The members must not be less than 30 years in age.
3. The term of the the individual members of legislative assembly is five years. The term of the individual members of  legislative council is 6 years. One-third of its members retire every two years.
4. Legislative assembly can be dissolved by the governor before the completion of its term. Legislative council is a permanent body and cannot be dissolved.
5.The legislative assembly can introduce a money bill. The legislative council cannot introduce a money bill.

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Question C.2:

Discuss the power and functions of the Legislative Assembly.

Answer:

 The members of the Legislative Assembly have two types of powers:
 
1.Legislative powers: The Assembly can make laws on the subjects mentioned in the state list as well as the concurrent list of the constitution. These subjects are maintenance of law and order, police, health, transport and land policies, education, forest and electricity.
2.Financial powers: The Assembly has supreme authority with respect to passing money bills and state budgets,  granting permissions for levying taxes and fixing salaries for the members of the state legislatures.

The Legislative Assembly also has control over the council of ministers. The members are answerable to the assembly. It may demand for resignation of a minister or may pass a  no-confidence motion against a particular ministry.
     

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Question C.3:

Which of the two houses of State legislature is more powerful? Why?

Answer:

Out of the two houses of the state legislature, (Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) and Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) is the more powerful house because of the following reasons:

1. It comprises representatives of the people as they are elected directly by them.
2. The members of the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) are granted legislative powers by the constitution. The laws pertaining to the subjects mentioned in the state and concurrent lists can be made by the Assembly.
3. Financial powers of the Assembly include passing of state budgets and bills, levying taxes and fixing the salaries of the members of the state legislature.
4. Money bills can be introduced only by the Assembly. Even for ordinary bills to be passed by the council, the approval of the assembly is mandatory.

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Question C.4:

The Governor enjoys some special powers. What are those powers? Explain.

Answer:

The governor enjoys some special powers that he exercises on the advice of the chief minister and the council of ministers. These powers are as follows:

1. Executive powers: The appointment of the chief minister and the council of ministers, on the advice of the chief minister, is done by the governor. He also appoints top officials like the advocate general and the members of the State Public Service Commission.
2. Discretionary powers: The governor can use his discretionary powers, that is, he can take decisions independently in cases of emergencies.
3. Legislative powers: The governor inaugurates and addresses the first session of the assembly after the general elections. All bills need his approval before they are passed.
4. Financial powers: No money bill or budget can be passed without his permission.
5. Judicial powers: The governor can reduce punishment or grant pardon to a convict.

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Question C.5:

Governor is only a nominal head of the state. Do you agree?

Answer:

Yes, the governor is appointed by the president and is a nominal head of the state. This is because of the following reasons:

1.The administration of the state is carried out in the name of governor. The actual responsibility is that of the chief minister and council of ministers.
2. The council of ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister.
3. The governor also appoints the top officials of the state, like the attorney general and the members of the State Public Service Commission on the advice of the chief minister.
4. The passage of the bills require the assent of the governor. This is done on the advice of the council of ministers headed by the chief minister.

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Question C.6:

How is the Chief Minister appointed? Discuss his main functions.

Answer:

The governor appoints the leader of the winning party as the chief minister. All the powers regarding the administration are vested upon the chief minister and his council of ministers.

The functions of a chief minister are as follows:
1. The chief minister directs the ministry and determines its policies.
2. The supervision of the governance of the state is the responsibility of the chief minister.
3. The allocation, reallocation and taking back portfolios is the function of the chief minister.
4. The chief minister coordinates the functioning of various ministries.

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Question D.1:

Unicameral and bicameral legislature

Answer:

The differences between a unicameral  legislature and a bicameral legislature are mentioned in the following table:
 

  Unicameral  Legislature Bicameral Legislature
1 The state with one house, that is, Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), has a unicameral legislature. The state with both the houses, namely, Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) and Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), has a bicameral legislature.
2 Examples - Goa, Haryana and Jharkhand Examples - Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka

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Question D.2:

Money bill and non-money bill

Answer:

The differences between a money bill and a non-money bill are mentioned in the following table:
 

Money  Bill Non-Money Bill
1. Articles 109 and 110 of the Constitution contain the details about a money bill. Articles 107 and 108 of the Constitution contain the details about a non-money bill.
2. This bill can only be introduced and passed in the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). These bills can be introduced and passed in both the houses (Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad).

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Question D.3:

Concurrent list and Union list

Answer:

The differences between a concurrent list and a union list are mentioned in the following table:
 

Concurrent List Union List
1. The subjects mentioned in the concurrent list are education, forest, electricity, labour welfare, etc.
The subjects included in the union list are of national importance, such as, defence, external affairs, currency, railways, communication, banking and post and telegraph.
2. The laws on these subjects can be made by the government at the state as well as at the centre. In case of conflict between state and centre, the centre prevails. The laws on these subjects can be made only by the government at the centre.



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