Longman Panorma Geography Solutions Solutions for Class 7 Social science Chapter 7 Distribution Of Major Water Bodies are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Distribution Of Major Water Bodies are extremely popular among Class 7 students for Social science Distribution Of Major Water Bodies Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Longman Panorma Geography Solutions Book of Class 7 Social science Chapter 7 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnationâ€™s Longman Panorma Geography Solutions Solutions. All Longman Panorma Geography Solutions Solutions for class Class 7 Social science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

#### Question A.1:

Why is earth called a watery planet?

Earth is known as watery planet because of following two reasons:
1. Almost 71% of the Earth's entire surface is covered with water.
2. Earth is the only known planet in our solar system that has vast amount of water, enabling it to support life.

#### Question A.2:

What are the various forms of fresh water?

Fresh water is available in various forms on the Earth, which can be broadly classified into two groups:

1. Inaccessible to human beings: In the form of glaciers and ice-caps at polar regions and mountain peaks
2. Available to human beings: In the form of ground water, as water vapour in the air and as surface water in rivers and lakes

#### Question A.3:

What do you mean by salinity of ocean water? What is the average salinity of ocean water?

The amount of salt dissolved in per unit volume of ocean water is known as the salinity of ocean water. The average salinity of ocean water is 35 per thousand, which means 35 grams of dissolved salt in per 1,000 grams of ocean water.

#### Question A.4:

What are the factors that affect the salinity of ocean water?

Salinity of ocean water depends on a number of factors:
1. Rate of evaporation
2. Amount of precipitation
3. Amount of fresh water that is discharged into ocean water

#### Question A.5:

What is the location of the Indian Ocean?

The Indian Ocean is located to the south of Asia and directly below India. To its west lies the African continent, while Australia lies to its east. In the south, it merges with the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, forming another ocean, that is, the Southern Ocean.

#### Question A.6:

How do oceans modify the climate of coastal regions?

Oceans modify the climate of coastal regions in the following two ways:

1. Since oceans are great sites of evaporation, they are responsible for humidity in atmosphere and precipitation in coastal regions.
2. Oceans also have a moderating effect on the climate of coastal regions, reducing the annual and diurnal range of temperatures.

#### Question B.1:

Fresh water and saline water

 Fresh Water Saline Water 1. It has less quantity of dissolved salts in it. 1. It has large quantities of dissolved salts in it. 2. It is suitable for human consumption. 2. It is not suitable for human consumption. 3. It is available in the form of ground water, glaciers, rivers, lakes and water vapours in air. 3. It is generally available in the form of ocean water and sea water.

#### Question B.2:

Salinity in the tropical region and in the polar region

 Salinity in Tropical Region Salinity in Polar Region 1. Salinity is high due to high rate of evaporation. 1. Salinity is low due to low rate of evaporation. 2. Mixing of fresh water with ocean water is generally restricted. 2. Mixing of fresh water with ocean water occurs due to the melting of icebergs.

#### Question C.1:

The salinity of oceans in the Equatorial region is not high.

The salinity of oceans in the equatorial region is not high because

1. there is heavy rainfall throughout the year in the equatorial region
2. in this region, large rivers like Zaire and Amazon discharge a large quantity of fresh water into the ocean

#### Question C.2:

The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest in terms of passenger and cargo traffic.

The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean in terms of passengers and cargo traffic because of following reasons:

1. The coastline along the Atlantic Ocean is very uneven and irregular, thereby giving rise to lots of modern day ports and harbours.
2. It provides passage for navigation among the continents of North America. South America, Europe and Africa.

#### Question C.3:

Oceans are the prime source of humidity in the atmosphere.

Oceans are great sites of evaporation, which, in turn, leads to condensation. This repeated cycle of evaporation and condensation increases the amount of water vapour in the air and thus acts as the main source of precipitation in the atmosphere. That is why oceans are regarded as the prime source of humidity in the atmosphere.

#### Question D.1:

Describe the water cycle with the help of a neatly labelled diagram.

Water cycle: Water is an essential component for living beings. It is found in various forms on the Earth. It moves in a cyclic manner from the surface to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere back to the surface.
Evaporation takes place when the water in oceans or other water bodies gets heated up due to sunlight. The resultant water vapour rises in the atmosphere and starts cooling down again with a decrease in temperature in upper layers of air. This process is termed as condensation. Heavy droplets of water combine together to form clouds. These clouds further result into precipitation and bring back the water on the surface in the form of rain, hail or snow. Some of the water seeps down the layers of earth, some is absorbed by plants and the rest falls into the rivers, which again drain into the ocean. This continuous cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation of water is known as water cycle or hydrological cycle.

The following diagram gives the detail of the process.

#### Question D.2:

Give an account of the location, extent and special features of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

Pacific Ocean

Location and extent: Pacific Ocean lies to the west of North and South American continent and to the east of Asia and Australia. In the north, it connects to Arctic ocean via Bering Strait and in the south, it forms the Southern Ocean along with the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
Special features: Pacific ocean is circular in its form. It is the largest ocean in the world, covering about one-third of the Earth's total surface. Its area is more than the cumulative area of all continents. It is not only the largest but also the deepest ocean in the world. â€‹Mariana Trench, the deepest known place on the Earth,  belongs to the Pacific Ocean. It has a large number of islands, mostly volcanic in nature.

Atlantic Ocean

Location and extent: The Atlantic Ocean extends from Europe and Africa on the east to North America and South America in the west. In the north, it stretches up to the Arctic circle and in south, it merges with the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

Special Features: It is the second largest ocean in the world. The coastline of the Atlantic Ocean is very indented, making it suitable for the growth of various ports and harbours. Therefore, it is the busiest ocean in terms of trade, commerce and transport. Some of the most famous cities like London, Liverpool, New York and Philadelphia are also located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

#### Question D.3:

Explain the importance of oceans.

Oceans are important due to the following reasons:

1. They are the prime source of precipitation and humidity in the atmosphere as maximum evaporation takes place on their surface itself.
2. They are home to a wide range of aquatic and marine life, which is the source of food and livelihood for many people.
3. They have a moderating effect on the climate of coastal areas making it very pleasant.
4. They have huge deposits of petroleum and minerals, which are very essential for the growth of modern industry.
5. They are a renewable source of power generation. Tidal and wave energy is being converted into electricity in many countries these days.
6. The saline water of oceans is also converted into portable water by desalination process, which can be used by humans.
7. Oceans have served as a great source of transport since long time. In the modern world, ocean transport plays an important role in international trade and commerce.

#### Question E.1:

The amount of fresh water on earth is

a. 3%
b. 5%
c. 7%
d. 9%

Explanation: About 97% of total water on the Earth has a large quantity of dissolved salts in it, thereby making it unsuitable for human consumption. Thus, the amount of fresh water is on the Earth is only 3%.

#### Question E.2:

The largest ocean in the world is

a. Indian Ocean
b. Arctic Ocean
c. Pacific Ocean
d. Atlantic Ocean

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world. It covers almost one-third of the Earth's entire surface. Its area is bigger than the combined area of all continents.

#### Question E.3:

a. sodium chloride
b. ferrous oxide
c. magnesium chloride
d. calcium sulphate

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The salinity of most of the oceans is mainly because of the presence of sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and sulphates of magnesium or calcium. Ferrous oxide is not among the salts or minerals found in oceans.

#### Question E.4:

The ocean around Antarctica is called?

a. Eastern Ocean
b. Western Ocean
c. Northern Ocean
d. Southern Ocean

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The southern extension of three major oceans, namely, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean, combine together and form a new ocean around Antarctica, which is known as the Southern Ocean.

#### Question F:

On an Outline map of the world, mark and label the following places.
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean Sea, North Sea, Red Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, South China Sea, Sea of Japan.