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Question A.1:

What were the different kinds of buildings constructed by the rulers?

Answer:

In the period between AD 700 and AD 1750, two kinds of buildings were built by the rulers:

1) Private: The first kind included forts, palaces and tombs. They were symbolic representations of the wealth of the rulers.
2) Public: The second kind included buildings like temples, mosques and tanks meant for the people.

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Question A.2:

Why was the building of temples and mosques an important task for all the medieval rulers?

Answer:

Building temples and mosques where the believers could gather for prayer was an important task for the medieval rulers. It gave the rulers an opportunity to display their wealth, power and devotion to God and proclaim their close relationship to God.

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Question A.3:

Do you think Muslim art was a reflection of efforts on the part of the rulers to consolidate their position? How?

Answer:

Rulers ordered construction of monuments to give their victories a symbolic and visual representation. It was an effort to consolidate their positions by the creation of grand monuments. Qutab Minar, Fatehpur Sikri and Lal Qila were created as a part of the conquest of the lands and the symbolic victory of an alien ruler over a territory.

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Question A.4:

Name a few building of the Sultanate period.

Answer:

Some of the buildings that were constructed during the Sultanate period are as follows:

The Mamluk period: Qutab Minar, Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra and Tomb of Iltutmish
The Khilji period: Alai Darwaza and Jamat Khana Masjid 

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Question A.5:

List two differences in the decorative styles as noticed during the Sultanate and the Mughal period.

Answer:

Two differences in the decorative styles of the Sultanate period and the Mughal period are as follows:

1) The Sultanate period introduced arches and domes. They were used only till the end of this period.
2) Calligraphy, arabesque and geometry were used for hiding rather than revealing the structure in the case of the structures of the Sultanate period. The Mughal period, on the other hand, fused the local architectural style and the Persian architectural style and calligraphy became more refined.

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Question B.1:

What new elements in architecture were introduced by the Turkish rulers of India?

Answer:

When the Turks emerged as the ruling power in Delhi, they introduced many new architectural features. Some of them are as follows:

1) Arches and domes: The finest innovations of this period included arches and domes. The pre-Turkish forms of lintels and beams were replaced by arches and domes.

2) Dome chamber: Buildings such as Qutab Minar and Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra were constructed in which the dome was raised with the help of corbelled courses.

3) Decorative features: Decorative features like calligraphy, arabesque and geometry became bolder. Calligraphy was the most important element of decorative art. Quranic sayings were inscribed on the buildings and they were written in a script called Kufi.

4) Coloured tiles: Coloured tiles were used to decorate buildings.

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Question B.2:

'Akbar's period was a period rich in architecture.' Do you agree?

Answer:

Akbar's period was indeed rich in architecture. It represents the fusion of Indo-Islamic architectural techniques. He used indigenous techniques and techniques from other countries. His building projects can be divided into two phases:

1) First Phase: Many forts and palaces in Agra, Allahabad and Lahore were created. Agra Fort was supposed to be a fortress-palace and many monuments were built inside in various regional styles including Bengali and Gujarati styles. The same is visible in other palaces and fortresses in Lahore and Allahabad.

2) Second Phase: It revolved around the creation of his new capital at Fatehpur Sikri. A ceremonial capital was created as Sikri (near Agra), which was later named Fatehpur Sikri. All the buildings were made of red sandstone. The place had several beautiful monuments like Buland Darwaza, Panch Mahal, Jodha Bai's Palace and Salim Chisti's tomb.

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Question B.3:

Write a paragraph on architecture under Shahjahan.

Answer:

Shah Jahan was a great builder. He is known for his extensive architectural works. He used marble as the main material in the construction of almost all of his buildings. Some of his famous architectural works are as follows:

1) Lal Qila: Located in Delhi, it follows the course of old Yamuna. It is flanked by Delhi and Lahore gateways. There are several notable buildings inside like Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas and Rang Mahal. All these buildings have floral work on them.

2) Moti Masjid: Located inside Agra Fort, it is made of white marble, which is adorned with black calligraphy. It has an open arcaded prayer hall.

3) Jama Masjid: Located in Delhi, it is the largest building in India of its kind. It is made of red sandstone, with white marble decoration. Built on a high platform, it is surrounded by arcades.

4) Taj Mahal: It is one of the most grand and well-known works of Shah Jahan. It is a huge rectangular complex with a grand entrance. The main building stands on a high platform. The decorative features include calligraphy and pietra dura. It has beautiful gardens in the front.

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Question C.1:

Persian chronicles refer to Sultan as the ___________.

Answer:

Persian chronicles refer to a sultan as the shadow of God.

Explanation: Persian court chronicles refer to a sultan as the shadow of God. Such comparison proves the might of the Sultan in the persian rule.

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Question C.2:

The indigenous architecture of India was of ________ type.

Answer:

The indigenous architecture of India was of trabeate type.

Explanation: The indigenous architecture that existed during the Sultanate period was of trabeate type. It consisted of horizontal beams traversing the space in doors, windows, etc.

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Question C.3:

The most innovative introduction in architecture under the Delhi Sultans were the ________ and the ________.

Answer:

The most innovative introduction in architecture under the Delhi sultans were the arch and the dome.

Explanation: The pre-existing forms of lintels and beams were replaced by arches and domes. This method was better able to support the required curve, by the means of a good binding material.

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Question C.4:

Lime paste was used at place like roofs, canals, drains to prevent ___________.

Answer:

Lime paste was used in roofs, canals and drains to prevent the leakage of water.

Explanation: Though gypsum was commonly used for plastering buildings, lime paste was used in roofs, canals, drains, etc. where there could be seepage of water.

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Question C.5:

Shahjahan made extensive use of _________ in his buildings.

Answer:

Shah Jahan made extensive use of marble in his buildings.

Explanation: Shah Jahan, a great builder, is known for the construction of many monuments. He made liberal use of marble in the construction of monuments. It can be seen as a move away from the red stone earlier used as the main construction material.

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Question C.6:

__________ is the inlay work of coloured precious and semiprecious stones.

Answer:

Pietra dura is the inlay work of coloured precious and semi-precious stones.

Explanation: In this method, semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli, onyx, jasper and topaz were embedded in marble. Jahangir's reign is known for the adoption of the pietra dura work.

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Question D.1:

The native Indian rulers claimed to be equal in status to God.

Answer:

The given statement is true.

Explanation: The native rulers proclaimed their close relationship to God. Rulers like Rajaraja of the Chola dynasty constructed temples of God having names similar to theirs to indicate their divine status as incarnations of God.

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Question D.2:

Construction of buildings was generally carried out in areas scarce in stones.

Answer:

The given statement is false.

Explanation: Construction was carried out by early rulers in areas where stones were in abundance.

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Question D.3:

The Quranic sayings were inscribed on the Sultanate buildings.

Answer:

The given statement is true.

Explanation: One of the important elements of decorative art was calligraphy. The Quranic sayings were inscribed on the buildings in a script known as Kufi.

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Question D.4:

Akbar in his buildings used red sandstone and trabeate construction.

Answer:

The given statement is true.

Explanation: Akbar mainly used red sandstone in the building material. He increasingly used indigenous techniques such as trabeate for the construction of buildings. Such elements are  visible in the Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri.

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Question D.5:

Jahangir was a great patron of architecture.

Answer:

The given statement is false.

Explanation: Jahangir was a great patron of the art of laying out gardens than that of building of huge monuments. Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh of Kashmir are his creations.

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Question E.1:

Pietra dura

Answer:

Jahangir's reign was known for a new type of inlay decoration known as pietra dura. In this method, semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli, onyx and jasper were embedded in the marble. This style was carried on during Shah Jahan's reign where it was used in the construction of the Taj Mahal as well.

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Question E.2:

Moti masjid

Answer:

Moti Masjid was constructed by Shah Jahan. It is located in the Agra Fort. An alternate building scheme was used by Shah Jahan wherein he built an open arcaded prayer hall. It is built in white marble with black marble calligraphy.

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Question E.3:

double dome

Answer:

The idea of double dome came to India from East Asia. This dome has two layers. The inner layer provides ceiling to the interior of a building and the outer layer crowns the building. It also helps in keeping  the inside ceiling at a lower height.

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Question E.4:

Fatehpur Sikri

Answer:

Akbar created a ceremonial capital for his empire at Sikri, which is forty kilometres west of Agra. The new capital was named Fatehpur Sikri and was built in a short span of time. The city is built of red sandstone, which is a hallmark of Akbar's reign. Mortar was also used in the construction of the pillars, lintels and posts that were cut from local stone. The public areas like Jama Masjid and Diwan-i-Am surround the private apartments.

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Question E.5:

Taj Mahal

Answer:

One of the most well-known projects of Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal. It is a rectangular complex made of marble. The main building of the Taj stands on a high marble platform. The building is decorated by calligraphy, inlay work on the exterior and pietra dura on the interior. It has a garden in the front, which has been divided into four quadrants, with two canals running across it to lend symmetry to the building, which is a tomb of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal.



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