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Question A.1:

Name the kingdoms both foreign and India which emerged during the period 700 − 1200 AD.

Answer:

The early mediaeval period AD 700–1200 saw the emergence of a number of powerful regional kingdoms in north India, the Deccan and south India.These kingdoms have been listed below.

  • The Palas 
  • The Gurjara-Pratiharas
  • The Rashtrakutas
  • The Cholas
  • The Turks

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Question A.2:

What did the Arab travellers say about the Rashtrakuta kingdom?

Answer:

Sulaiman, an Arab traveller, visited Amoghavarsa's court in AD 851. He wrote that the Rashtrakuta kingdom had reached its zenith under Amoghvarsa's rule. He also wrote that the Rashtrakuta dynasty was one of the four great empires of the world.

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Question A.3:

What do you understand by the tripartite struggle?

Answer:

The constant rivalry between the Palas, the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas has been termed the Tripartite Struggle or the struggle between three major powers. One of the major causes of this continuous struggle was the desire to possess the city of Kannauj, which was then a symbol of sovereignty. Another cause was the control of the fertile regions of the Ganges valley.  

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Question A.4:

Where did Turkish invasions take place?

Answer:

The prominent Turkish ruler Mahmud Ghazni invaded Punjab and annexed eastern provinces. He later looted the cities of Thaneswar, Mathura, Kannauj and Somnath.

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Question A.5:

Mention two famous kings of Chola kingdom.

Answer:

The Chola kingdom reached great heights under the reign of Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I.

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Question B.1:

Highlight the main reasons behind the success of Turks in India.

Answer:

Some of the reasons behind the success of the Turks in India are as follows:

  1. After the fall of the Gurjara-Pratiharas, no single dominant dynasty came into power. Instead, several small independent powers such as the Gahadavalas of Kannauj, the Parmaras of Malwa and the Chauhans of Ajmer emerged as powers in different parts of the country. These powers remained busy overpowering each other or extending their areas of authority. This left the country with with no powerful authority to check any invasion.
  2. A form of feudal military arrangement existed in the Hindu states. In this system, feudal lords had small army regiments under their control. During the time of military expedition, the feudal lords extended their aid to the king. This system reduced the loyalty  to the king. This resulted in lack of unity and coordination in the army.
  3. Superior military technology and well-crafted art of warfare of the Turks were also some reasons for the success of the Turks.

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Question B.2:

Village assemblies were an important part of Chola administration. How?

Answer:

Village assemblies were an important part of the Chola administration (society and polity). A self-sufficient and autonomous village was established with the help of these assemblies. The assemblies worked from the grassroot level, with participation of all villagers. At the top of the system, there were several officers and committees overlooking the work of autonomous units. According to the Uttaramerur inscriptions, there were three types of assemblies that played a prominent role in the local administration. These assemblies are as follows:
- The ur - It was an assembly of the common people. All people owning land could become its part.
- The sabha - It was an exclusive Brahmin assembly.
- The nagaram - It was an assembly of traders and merchants.

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Question B.3:

Bring out the main features of the Chola temples.

Answer:

One of the most important aspects of the rule of the Cholas was cultural advancement. Art and architecture reached new heights during their rule. Temples no longer remained just the places of worship but rather became the centres of social life. The main hall or the mandapa of the temple often served as the venue for village assembly meetings. Songs and dance were often performed in the temple premises. Bronze statues were also crafted for these temples.

Most of the Chola temples were built in the Dravidian style. Vimana or the tower of the temple decorated by an elaborate gopuram or gateway was an essential feature of Chola temples. Some of the most prominent Chola temples are the Brihadeshwara temple and the Rajarajeshwar temple in Kerala.

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Question C:

On a political map of India locate and label the following places.
Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Kalinga, Tanjore, Madurai

Answer:

 

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Question D.1:

Tripartite struggle

Answer:

The constant rivalry between the Palas, the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas has been termed the Tripartite Struggle or the struggle between three major powers. One of the major causes of this continuous struggle was the desire to possess the city of Kannauj, which was then a symbol of sovereignty. Another cause was the control of the fertile regions of the Ganges valley. At the end of the long-drawn-out war, the Pratiharas emerged victorious. 

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Question D.2:

Somnath temple

Answer:

The Somnath temple is located in the Kathiawar district of  Gujarat and its glory and fame are legendary. The temple is dedicated to Lord Somnath. Mohammad Ghazni attacked this temple during his sixteenth expedition to India. All the gems and other precious possessions of the temple were looted. Mohammad Ghazni carted off the wealth of the temple and destroyed it. Most of the devotees were also killed.

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Question D.3:

Al-Beruni's India

Answer:

Al-Beruni was a philosopher and a scientist who wrote vividly on Indian sciences, religion and society. His book is a survey of the Indian life based on his experience and observations during AD 1017–1030. He acquainted himself with Sanskrit to understand the Hindu thought of religion. His scientific approach to study religious texts is remarkable. His work Kitab-ul-Hind still serves as important historical source of study of the mediaeval India.

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Question D.4:

Palas

Answer:

The Palas ruled the medieval east India. According to historical sources, Gopal laid the foundation of this dynasty in AD 750. He was elected by nobles to end the regional anarchy then prevalent. He was an ardent Buddhist and had built a monastery at Odantapuri in Bihar. Another powerful ruler of the Pala kingdom, Devapala came into power in AD 810. It was under his rule that the Palas extended their authority to Assam, parts of Orissa and Nepal.

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Question D.5:

Chola army

Answer:

The Cholas were one of the most dynamic and powerful kingdoms of the medieval south India. They were not only great administrators but also efficient expansionists. With the sheer strength of their armed or military forces, the Cholas were able to conquer Sri Lanka, Java and Sumatra. Their army consisted of elephants, cavalry and infantry. Also, the strongest men of the kingdom were selected to form the army. Training, discipline and cantonment were given prime attention. The commanders enjoyed the ranks of nayaka, senapati and mahadandanayaka.



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