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Question A.1:

Name two Nirguna and Saguna saint poets.

Answer:

Following are the names of nirguna and saguna saint poets:

(1) Nirguna poets: Kabir and Guru Nanak
(2) Saguna poets: Tulsidas and Surdas

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Question A.2:

Who compiled the Adi Granth. Name another work composed by him.

Answer:

Guru Arjan compiled the Adi Granth. He also wrote Sukhmani, which is one of the longest and greatest medieval mystic poems.

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Question A.3:

What was the style of architecture practiced by Delhi Sultans?

Answer:

The Indo-Islamic style of architecture was practised by the sultans of Delhi. The style was a hybrid of Islamic and regional Indian architecture.

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Question A.4:

Under whom did the Bengali literature flourish and how?

Answer:

The Bengali literature mainly flourished after the advent of Sri Chaitanya. Many Vaishnava poets like Chandidasa and Govindasa were inspired by the mystic teachings of saints and composed many lyrics in a new literary language that was a blend of Maithili and Sanskrit.

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Question A.5:

What are miniature paintings?

Answer:

Miniature paintings are small paintings usually done on cloth or paper.

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Question A.6:

Which are the three periods in the development of Hindi literature?

Answer:

The different periods of development of the Hindi literature are as follows:
 

(1) Adi kal: The first stage of the Hindi literature lasted from AD 1206 to AD 1318. It was the richest period in the development of the Hindi literature.
(2) Bhakti kal: In this period, the major contribution was made by the nirguna and saguna saint poets and mystic poets.
(3) Riti kal: It lasted from 1643 AD to 1850 AD and was a secular period of development. Few important poets during this period were Kesavadasa, Chintamani and Bihari.

Page No 89:

Question B.1:

Throw light on the development of Bengali as a regional language.

Answer:

The language Bengali evolved over a long period of time. There were various stages in its development:

(1) First stage: Initially, Bengali was not spoken in Bengal and the adjoining areas. In fact, earlier scripts suggest that people from Bengal did not even speak Sanskrit. With the influence of growing commercial ties that were shared with Magadha and Indo-Gangetic areas, Sanskrit and Sanskritic ideas started flowing into Bengal. Over a period of time, Bengali as a language grew out of various Sanskritic influences.

(2) Second stage: As the area was ruled by Muslim rulers independent of the Sultans of Delhi, Persian became the official language here, while Bengali remained the regional language. The language further adopted many words from tribal, Persian and European languages and evolved over the time.

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Question B.2:

Did the regional architecture draw inspiration from the Sultanate architecture? Support your answer with examples.

Answer:

The Indian regional architecture evolved under the influence of the Islamic architecture, which was brought to India by the rulers from the west. The regional architecture adopted some features of the Islamic architecture to evolve into a new style. Some examples are as under:

(1) The Sharqi kingdom of Jaunpur developed a new style of architecture called the Jaunpur architectural style. Bastions, minarets and the arch-and-beam combination used were its distinct features. Another feature was the facade of the mosques. Atala Masjid and Jami Masjid are its two examples.

(2) Within the Malwa region, the Indo-Islamic architecture thrived. The two cities Dhar and Mandu have a rich cultural legacy of mosques, tombs and palaces. The most distinctive feature is the artistic combination of the arch and lintel elements.

(3) In the Vijayanagar region, the finest examples of the Indo-Islamic fusion architecture can be found. The use of monolithic multiple pliers and pillars for architectural and decorative purposes is a distinct feature of the Vijayanagar style of architecture.

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Question B.3:

Write a brief note on a the development of painting in medieval period.

Answer:

Miniature painting, a new form of painting, evolved during the medieval period. Miniature paintings were small paintings done on either cloth or paper. They became popular among the Mughals who used them to illustrate manuscripts containing historical accounts and poetry. As the Mughal kingdom declined, the painters sought refuge in the regional kingdoms where these paintings underwent vast regional influences. Different styles of paintings emerged during this period. Some of them are follows:

(1) Rajasthani style: This style of painting had an aesthetic value attached to it. After the collapse of the Mughal empire, it flourished under various Rajput kingdoms. Nature was its main theme. Landscape paintings were emphasised, with human figures playing subordinate roles. The Rajasthani miniature art was also known for the intensity of the colours used in it.

(2) Pahari/Kangra style: It was inspired from Vaishnavite traditions. It included the use of soft colours like blue and green and reflected a very lyrical treatment of themes.

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Question B.4:

Discuss Amir Khusrau's contribution to India music.

Answer:

Amir Khusrau was an Indian musician, scholar and poet. He played an important role in the development of music in the medieval India. He was a disciple of the great Sufi saint Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. He was also the court poet of Alauddin Khilji. Some of his important contributions are as follows:

(1) He introduced qawwali and khayal styles of singing.
(2) He invented the sitar, which is a musical combination of the old Indian veena and the Iranian tambura.
(3) He played a major role in the development of ghazals in India. He was also known and admired for his poems. He innovated many compositions as well as assimilated different types of music.

In short, his contribution to the field of music in India is beyond comparison. He also helped in the evolution of the Indian music to a stage where it stands today.

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Question C.1:

Miniature painting

Answer:

Miniature paintings are small paintings done either on cloth or on paper. These paintings are generally very colourful. The main feature of these paintings is their intricate brushwork.

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Question C.2:

Jaunpuri architecture

Answer:

Jaunpuri architecture carries an impact of architecture during the Tughlaq dynasty, which included bastions, minarets and the use of arch and beam combinations in the openings. However, the most distinct feature of this style is the design of the facade of mosques.

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Question C.3:

Kathak dance

Answer:

The term 'kathak' is derived form the word 'katha,' which means 'a story'. The kathaks were originally storytellers who conveyed stories thorough dance, which involved different gestures and body postures, in the temples of north India. Kathak evolved in the 15th and 16th centuries with the spread of the Bhakti movement in India.

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Question C.4:

Bengali language

Answer:

Initially, the language spoken in Bengal and the adjoining areas was neither Bengali nor Sanskrit. It was with the influence of Magadha and Indo-Gangetic areas that Sanskrit and Sanskritic ideas started flowing in Bengal. After some time, Bengali language emerged out of Sanskritic influence. The language continued to grow through various stages and adapted many new words from tribal, Persian and European languages.



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