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Question A.1:

Trace the origin of the Mughals.

Answer:

The word 'Mughal' was derived from the word 'Mongol'. The Mughals claimed to be the descendents of Genghis Khan, the ruler of the Mongol tribe of China and central Asia, from their mother's side. From their father's side, they were the fifth-generation descendents of Timur, the ruler of Iran, Iraq and Turkey.

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Question A.2:

How did Babur establish his foothold in India?

Answer:

Babur, the first Mughal emperor, took advantage of the unstable political situation in India after Sikandar Lodi's death. He attacked India on the invitation of Daulat Khan. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in 1526. He also overcame Rajput opponents in the battle of  Khanwa ​in 1527. Babur's two major victories decisively shifted the balance of power and established Mughals as the foremost rulers of India.

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Question A.3:

Who was Akbar's regent? What role did he play in the politics of the time?

Answer:

Bairam khan was Akbar's regent. He was the commander in chief of the Mughal army, guardian and chief mentor of Prince Akbar. Bairam Khan played the following role in politics:

  1. He served Humayun and his son Akbar and made efforts to expand the Mughal kingdom. 
  2. After Humayun's death in 1556, Bairam Khan became a regent to the throne, as Akbar was too young to rule by himself.
  3. He consolidated ​Mughal authority in northern India.
  4. He led the Mughal forces at the second battle of Panipat to defeat Hemu, the wazir of Sur dynasty and allied Afghan forces.

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Question A.4:

What was the relationship between the Mansabdar and the Jagir?

Answer:

i) A mansabdar was a salaried rank holder in the Mughal service. His rank was determined by a numerical value called zat. Mansabdars maintained a stipulated number of sawars with horses and equipment.
ii) A jagir was payment to a mansabdar in the form land. The revenue of a jagir was assessed such that it was equal to the salary of a mansabdar.

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Question A.5:

Into how many subas or provinces was Akbar's kingdom divided? Name them.

Answer:

Subas were established by Emperor Akbar when he made administrative reforms. His kingdom was divided in 12 subas

  1. Allahabad
  2. Agra
  3. Awadh
  4. Ajmer
  5. Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
  6. Bihar
  7. Bengal (including Orissa)
  8. Delhi
  9. Kabul
  10. Lahore
  11. Multan
  12. Malwa

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Question A.6:

What was the difference between the iqtadari system prevalent under Delhi Sultanate and Jagirdari system?

Answer:

The iqtadari system was a unique type of land distribution system that evolved during the Sultanate period. This system was developed to appropriate the surplus acquired from the peasantry and distribute it among the nobles. The iqtadar or the muqti had to administer the area assigned to him.
The jagirdari system of the Mughals had its roots in the iqtadari system of the Delhi Sultanate. Under this system, all mansabdars were paid either in cash or in the form of jagirs. The holder of a jagir was called a jagirdar. All jagirdars were allotted jagirs roughly equivalent to their salary. The major difference between the jagirdari system and the iqtadari system was that jagirdars were not necessarily required to live in the region but were required to administer it.

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Question B.1:

How would you describe the relationship between Akbar and the Rajputs.

Answer:

Akbar’s relations with the Rajputs have to be seen against the wider background of the Mughal policy towards the powerful rajas and zamindars of the country.When Akbar assumed the throne, he made a deliberate attempt for matrimonial alliances to win the Rajputs to his side. He used their support for the expansion and consolidation of the Mughal rule in India. He met with tremendous success in his endeavour. It also brought decline in the number and magnitude of revolts of the Rajputs. Akbar could concentrate more on his administrative and other reforms. Thus, Akbar’s regime marked the beginning of friendly relations between the Mughals and the Rajputs. Religious conflicts between the ruling elite were replaced by cooperation and friendliness. Akbar’s Rajput policy proved extremely successful for the Mughal Empire and is considered the best example of his diplomatic skills. He formed strong and stable empire with the help of the Rajputs, a martial clan among the Hindus, and got rid of the influence of the conspirators in his empire.
 

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Question B.2:

Explain the Zabt or Bandobast system of land revenue.

Answer:

Akbar introduced fresh reforms in the land revenue system. He was assisted by Todarmal who was appointed as Diwan-i- Shraf or Revenue Minister. Akbar's land revenue reforms rested on the new system introduced by Todarmal, which became popular by the name of Todarmal's bandobast or zabti system.

The three main features of the bandobast system are as follows:
(a) Survey and measurement of land
(b) Classification of land on the basis of its productivity
(c) Assessment of land revenue

 

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Question B.3:

How did the religious discussions help in the formation of Akbar's religious and administrative policy?

Answer:

Religious discussions influenced the policies of Akbar in the following ways:

  1. They broadened his horizon and outlook towards religion. He got convinced that all religions were equally true. He adopted the policy of complete tolerance towards other religions.
  2. His policy was based on the principle of universal peace. 
  3. He constructed ibadatkhana (house of worship) in Fatehpur Sikri in which regular discussions on religion took place.
  4. He ensured religious peace and security in the empire.
  5. Abolition of pilgrimage tax and jaziya, construction of ibadatkhana, etc. were all done with this purpose.
  6. Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Jains, etc. were allowed to construct buildings for the purpose of worship, propagate their faith peacefully and celebrate their religious fairs and festivals;
  7. State services were open to people of all religions; a uniform taxation system was applied to all citizens and no social distinction was observed among the people on the basis of their religions.

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Question B.4:

How was Auranzeb's rule different from his predecessors?

Answer:

Unlike his predecessors, Aurangzeb wanted that the sharia or Islamic law to be followed everywhere and the practices against the Islam rules, such as the consumption of alcohol and gambling, to be disallowed in the public. Unlike his predecessors, his reign was marked by austerity. The monumental architecture that characterised the reigns of Akbar and Shah Jahan, including the Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, the Taj Mahal and Shahjahanabad, held little interest for Aurangzeb, and similarly the musicians who had adorned the courts of his predecessors were dismissed.

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Question B.5:

What were the major factors that led to the decline of the Mughal Empire?

Answer:

The decline of the Mughals was gradual and there were reasons behind that. Some of them are as follows:

  1.  The degeneration of the rulers led to the degeneration of the nobility, with factious quarrels and intrigues costing the empire heavily.
  2. The empire had become too vast and unwieldy to be efficiently governed by the central authority under weak rulers, especially in the conditions of mediaeval transport and communication.
  3. Aurangzeb's radical religious policy was largely responsible. It caused revolts by the Rajputs, the Sikhs, the Jats and the Marathas.
  4. Aurangzeb's aggressive Deccan policy was a complete failure and, to a major extent, caused the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

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Question C.1:

Babur defeated _________ at the battle of Panipat.

Answer:

Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat.

Explanation: In the Battle of Panipat in 1526, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi, who was the sultan of Delhi. This was the first among the series of battles won by Babur that established a strong foundation for the Mughal Empire in India.

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Question C.2:

Humayun sought the help of Persian King _________ to reconquer his Indian legacy.

Answer:

Humayun sought the help of the Persian king Shah Tahmasp to reconquer his Indian legacy.

Explanation: Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in the battle of Chausa and then in the battle of Kannauj. After a heavy defeat, he had to leave India and seek refuge in Persia. The Persian king Shah Tahmasp helped Humayun to conquer Kabul and Kandhar. He also helped him in recapturing Delhi and Agra.

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Question C.3:

While the Zat determined the rank and salary of a Mansabdar, the Sawar indicated his _________.

Answer:

While Zat determined the rank and salary of a mansabdar, sawar indicated his grade.

Explanation: Akbar reconciled earlier practices and new measures in the military administration. Maintaining sawars or contingents with horses and equipment was mandatory for all mansabdars. The mansabdars were committed to submit these sawars in the service of the emperor during various battles.

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Question C.4:

To hold religious discussions Akbar built ________ at _________.

Answer:

To hold religious discussions Akbar built ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri.

Explanation: Akbar was not a radical Muslim but an observer of all religions. He encouraged series of debates between representatives of various religions like Jains, Catholics and Hindus. To hold these religious discussions, he built ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri.

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Question C.5:

___________ visited the court of Jahangir in 1615.

Answer:

Sir Thomas Roe visited the court of Jahangir in 1615.

Explanation: European traders had started trading in India during Jahangir's time. The first ambassador to the Mughal court was Sir Thomas Roe from Great Britain who came here in 1615. Sir Thomas was a skillful diplomat. He secured many trading facilities in India for the traders of his country.

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Question C.6:

Aurangzeb captured the last of the Shia states _________ and ___________.

Answer:

Aurangzeb captured the last of the Shia states Bijapur and Golconda.

Explanation: Aurangzeb ruled for nearly 50 years till his death in 1707. During his rule, he tried fulfilling his great ambition of bringing the entire subcontinent under one rule. It was only under his rule that the last two Shia states of Bijapur and Golconda surrendered to the Mughal Empire in 1687.

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Question D.1:

Akbar's Rajput policy

Answer:

The Rajput policy of Akbar was devised to win over Rajput kingdoms and induct the Rajputs into the Mughal service. Some of the features of Akbar's Rajput policy are as follows:

  1. Akbar extended a friendly hand towards the Rajputs by matrimonial alliances.
  2. Rajputs were treated at par with the Mughal nobility.
  3. Akbar also returned the land of the defeated Rajput kings as assignments or watan jagir to help in expanding the Mughal Empire. 
  4. Akbar abolished pilgrimage taxes.
  5. Zajiya tax was abolished for non-Muslims.

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Question D.2:

Mansabdari system

Answer:

Akbar introduced the mansabdari system in the Mughal military administration. Apart from Irani and Turani nobles, he recruited diverse groups of people like Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs and Marathas and they were known as mansabdars. This system was followed in the civil and military administration. Officers had the following ranks:

  • Zat rank: It was a personal rank that determined the status and pay.
  • Sawar rank: It was a military rank that determined the force maintained by a mansabdar.
A mansabdar was paid either in cash or in the form of a jagir whose revenue he was entitled to as a salary.

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Question D.3:

Jagirdari system

Answer:

The jagirdari system had its roots in the iqtadari system prevalent under the Delhi Sultanate. Under this system, all mansabdars were paid either in cash or in the form of jagirs. The holders of jagirs were called jagirdars. A mansabdar was granted a jagir such that the revenue of the jagir was equivalent to the salary of the mansabdar.

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Question D.4:

Sulkikul

Answer:

Emperor Akbar's idea of Suhl-i-kul or universal peace was secular in outlook. It did not discriminate between people on the basis their religions. It focussed on the attributes of honesty, justice and peace. It also encouraged participation of various religious representatives in debates. Thus, religious tolerance became a part of state policy.

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Question D.5:

Aurangzeb

Answer:

Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal emperor; he ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent. He was radical in his religious views and was known for his aggressive military policies. Unlike his predecessors, he had little interest in arts, aesthetics and architecture. Bijapur and Golconda, the last two Shia states, also surrendered to Mughal Empire during his reign. He led several relentless Deccan campaigns. He had to face many rebellions from the Marathas, the Sikhs and the Jats because of his hardline policies.Though he ruled longer than any of his predecessors, the seeds of the decline of the Mughal Empire were sown during his time. This was because constant military expeditions drained the administration and the treasury. Large sections of people became alienated from the Mughal rule.

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Question E:

Show extent of Akbar's empire in the outline map of India.

Answer:




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