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Pastoralism in the Modern World1. What similarities do you notice in the lifestyles of the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir and the Gaddi Shepherds of Himachal Pradesh?A. 1. Both the Gujjar Bakarwals and the Gaddi Shepherds are herders o goat and sheep. 2. Both have a similar cycle of seasonal movement. In the winter the Gujjars and Gaddis lived with their herds in the low hills of the Shiwalik range grazing their flocks in scrub forests. 3. By April, the Gaddis moved northwards and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti valleys while the Gujjars marched northwards to their summer grazing grounds. They crossed the Pir Panjal Parses and entered the Kashmir valley. 4. By September, both are on the move again back to the winter base. On the way back, the Gaddi Shepherds stopped again in the villages of Lahul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crop.2. Who were the Dhangars? What were their occupations? Why they continously on the move?A. 1. The Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. 2. Most of them were shepherds; some were blanket weavers others were buffalo herders. 3. They were continuously on the move in search of pasture for their cattle. They lived in a semi arid region with low rainfall and poor soil. Only bajra could be sown here. After harvesting bajra in October, they moved westwards to the Konkani region. 4. The Konkani area was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and and rich soil. By this time, the Khariff crop has been harvested and the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for rabbi crop. The Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice to the shepherds with the onset of monsoons, the Dhangars returned to their settlements on the plateau as the sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions.3. What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive.A. 1. The pastoralists had to judge how long the herds could stay tn one area and know where could they find water and pasture. 2. They needed to calculate the timing of their movements and ensure that they could move through different territories. 3. They also had to forge a relationship with farmers on the way so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manures the soil. 4. They had to combine a range of different activities like cultivation, trade and herding to male their living.4. How did the various laws passed by the British affect the Indian Pastoralists?A. 1. The various laws led to a serious shortage of pastures. The shepherds and cattle herders could no danger freely pasture their cattle in the forests. 2. Their grazing land declined. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures. 3. Under the forest acts, the pastoralists were not allowed to have access in reserved forests. However they were granted some grazing rights in the forests. 4. This in turn led to a further shortage of forage for animals and deterioration of animals stock underfed cattles died in large no.s during scarcities and famines.5. How did the pastoralists cope with these changes?A. 1. Pastoralists have reacted to the changes in many ways. Some have reduce the no. of cattle while others have discovered new features when their movement to old grazing grounds became more difficult. 2. After 1947, the Raikars could no longer move into Sindh. Therefore in recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze agricultural fields after the harvests. The fields also need manure that the animals can provide. 3. The rich pastoralists started buying land gave up their nomadic life. Some have become peasants while others have taken to extensive trading. Many poor pastoralists have lost their cattle and became laborers, working on fields or in small towns. 4. Thus pastoralists have survived and their numbers have increased in recent decades when grazing lands were closed in one region, they changed the direction of their movement, reduced the size of their herd, combined pastoral activity with other forms of income and adapted in the modern world.1. Name any fiveimportant pastoral nomadic communities found in India in the mountains, plains,and plateau and desert regions.(i) Mountains: Gujjars Bakarwala, Gaddi's.(ii) Plains and Plateau: Dhangars, Banjaras.(iii) Desert Region: Raikas.2. Name any four states/regions in India where pastoral nomadism is practised.(i) Jammu and Kashmir,(ii) Himachal Pradesh,(iii) Maharashtra,(iv) Uttar Pradesh,(v) Rajasthan.3. Give names of any one pastoral community of(i) Himachal Pradesh(ii) Jammu and Kashmir.Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Shepherds Jammu and Kashmir: Gujjar Bakarwals4. Name the pastorial communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.Pastoral communities that lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were:(i) Gollas(ii) Kurumas, and(iii) Kurubas.5. What was the occupation of the pastoral communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh?The pastoral communities of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka herded cattle, raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Of them the Kurumas and Kurubas lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land and indulged in a variety of petty trades.6. Gujjar herders originally belong to which state.The Gujjar herders originally came from the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In the 19th century search for pastures brought them to hills of Uttar Pradesh.7. What is the pattern of migration of Gujjar herders?The Gujjar herders in winters came down to the dry, forests of the bhabar and in summers they went up to the high meadows i.e., the bugyals.8. Where the Banjaras found and what were their occupations?Banjaras a well-known group of graziers were found in(i) U.P.(ii) Punjab(iii) Rajasthan(iv) Madhya Pradesh, and(v) MaharashtraOccupation:They were nomadic and mainly graziers and sold plough, cattle, and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.9. Who are Raikas, where are they found?(i) Raikas are a nomadic community found in the deserts of Rajasthan. (ii) They are pastoralists and cultivators.10. Why are the Raika community both pastoralists and cultivators?The uncertainty and meagre rainfall in the desert region leading to fluctuating harvests made the Raikas combine both cultivation and pastoralism as means of occupation.11. Why did pastoral communities move from place to place?Pastoral communities moved from place to place in search of pastures for their cattle.12. Give any one change that occurred in Maasai society during colonial rule.During colonial rule the traditional difference based on age between elders and warriors was disturbed and a new distinction between wealthy and poor pastoralists developed.13. How did the British seek to administer the affairs of the Maasai?To administer the Maasai the British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai. They were made responsible for tribal affairs and imposed restrictions on warfare and raids.14. Give names of any two pastoral communities of Africa.(i) Bedouins (ii) Berbers.15. Give two factors for pastoral communities being nomadic.Pastoral communities are nomadic because:(i) It enables them to survive bad times and avoid crisis in difficult terrain.(ii) Continuous movement is also because of exhaustion of pasture and there insurability.16. What does the word Maasai mean? Where are they found?The word Maasai means 'My People'. It is derived from the word 'Maa. Maasai's are found primarily in East Africa: 3,00,000 in Southern Kenya and 1,50,000 in Tanzania.17. How did poor Maasai pastoralists survive war and famines?During war, famines and other bad times the poor Maasai pastoralists searched for work in the towns as charcoal burners, at road and building construction sites to make a living.18. Give names of one game reserve in(i) Kenya (ii) Tanzania.Kenya:Samburu National Park/Maasai MaraTanzania:Serengeti Park19. What was the Grazing Act? Or why did the pastoralists hate the Grazing Act?By the Grazing Act, the British levied tax on the pastoralists, on every animal they took to pastures to graze. It was hated by the impoverished pastoral community for it's was contrary to their customary rights.20. Give one reason why the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act?The British considered traders, craftsmen and pastoralists to be criminal by nature. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed so that they could identify and control these communities.21. Define the term Pastoral Nomadism.

Pastoral Nomadism is a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals. Under this people do not live in one place but move from one place to another along with their animals in search of fresh grazing areas.

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