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(b) Digboi

Digboi is a place in Assam where the oldest oil refinery in India is located.

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(a) refining

The process of separating useful fractions from petroleum is called petroleum refining.

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(a) paraffin wax

Paraffin wax is used for making shoe polish.

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(b) bituminous

Bituminous coal is a household variety of coal.

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(a) natural gas

Natural gas is an ideal fuel.

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(a) carbon

The main constituent of coal is carbon.

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(a) bitumen

Bitumen is used for 'metalling' roads to enhance their durability.

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(a) coal tar

Coal tar is a product of the process by which gas is made from coal. It is a thick black liquid with an unpleasant smell.

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(a) CNG

CNG (compressed natural gas) is the least polluting fuel for vehicles.

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(a) air pollution

The burning of fossil fuels produces many pollutants that lead to air pollution.

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1. Petroleum is called black gold.

2. Wood is converted into coal by the process of carbonisation.

3. Anthracite is the best variety of coal.

4. Coal is used as domestic and industries fuel.

5. The first oil well was dug in India at Makum in the year 1867.



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Carbon is the element that forms so many compounds. Most of the exhaustible natural resources, such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, have carbon as their major constituent. Air, which belongs to the category of inexhaustible natural resources, also has carbon as a constituent. Substances that we use in our daily life are polymers of different carbon compounds.
Hence, we can conclude that carbon is an element that is present in about 98 percent of the known compounds.

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Thermal energy is the energy that comes from heat. Heat can be produced by burning different natural resources, such as petrol and coal, but they are exhaustible. Exhaustible natural resources are limited in quantity and are exhausted by human activities after some time. However, solar energy belongs to the category of inexhaustible natural resources, which are present in nature in unlimited quantities and cannot be exhausted by human activities. Hence, solar energy is a better option than thermal energy.

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Compressed natural gas (CNG) can be transported directly to homes and industries because of the following facts:
(a) It causes less pollution and is an efficient fuel.
(b) CNG fuel systems are sealed; this prevents any spill or evaporation losses.
(c) CNG-powered vehicles have lower maintenance cost compared to other fossil fuel-powered vehicles.

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Column A Column B
1. Petrol (c) Light vehicles
2. Diesel (d) Heavy vehicles
3. Kerosene (e) Fuel for lamps
4. Paraffin wax (b) Vaseline
5. Bitumen (a) Road surfacing

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1. True


2. True

3. False
The greenhouse effect leads to global warming.

4. False
Petroleum has many compounds, such as water, salt and other particles, other than organic compounds.

5. True

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Coal and petroleum are two fossil fuels.

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The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) is a government organisation that is associated with petroleum.

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CNG is compressed natural gas, which mainly consists of methane. It is formed under the earth at a high temperature and pressure, in the absence of oxygen.

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Petroleum refining is the process by which the fractional distillation method is used to separate the components of petroleum.

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Natural gas is a fossil fuel. It occurs below deep layers of Earth mostly associated with oil wells as it is formed by decomposition of fossils, buried in the earth since millions of years.

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Fossil fuels have contributed the most to global warming.

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Carbon is the main constituent of coal.

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CNG: Compressed natural gas
ONGC: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.

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Petroleum is derived from petra and oleum.
Petra means rocks and oleum means oil.

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Solar energy is better than thermal energy for the following reasons.
1. It does not cause pollution.
2. It is available in unlimited quantities.

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The following are three uses of coal.
1. In industries and homes as fuel
2. In thermal power stations to generate electricity
3. In the manufacturing of synthetic petrol and synthetic natural gas

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Four places where oil refineries are located are Mumbai, Chennai, Mathura and Barauni.

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The following are the reasons that make fuel oil better than coal.
(i)  Fuel oil does not cause much pollution on burning.
(ii) It has a high calorific value.

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Petroleum is a mixture of fossil fuels, such as petrol, diesel and kerosene, formed millions of years ago inside the earth. It is extracted from the earth and refined to separate the individual components.
The word 'petroleum' has been derived from two words, i.e., petra, meaning 'rocks', and oleum, meaning 'oil'.

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Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas. It consists of primarily methane, with up to 20 percent concentration of other hydrocarbons (usually ethane) as well as small amounts of impurities (such as carbon dioxide). It is formed inside the earth in conditions of high temperature and pressure and in the absence of oxygen. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth.

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The following are the two important uses of coal:
(i) Generation of electricity in thermal power industries
(ii) Extraction of metals and manufacturing of synthetic petrol and synthetic natural gas

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Fossil fuels are the natural fuels formed deep inside the earth from the remains of dead organisms (such as plants and animals that got buried in the earth) by the action of intense heat and pressure.

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Carbonisation is the process of conversion of wood into coal by a very slow chemical process.
This process may take thousands of year to take place.
Example: Formation of fossil fuels.

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Formation of petroleum:
Millions of years ago, sea organisms died and became accumulated at the bottom of the sea. In the course of time, sand and clay came to be deposited over the remains of these dead organisms. The movement of water led to the deposition of more sand and clay over these remains. Over a period of millions of years, a thick layer
of sand and clay was formed, compressing the organic material. Under conditions of high pressure and temperature, this organic material, over millions of years, became converted into petroleum.

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Fossil fuels, which have been traditionally used by human beings as energy sources, are non-renewable sources of energy. These sources of energy are limited and cannot replenish on their own. They are being consumed at a large rate. If this rate of consumption continues, then fossil fuels on the earth would be exhausted. Therefore, we have to conserve energy sources and also look for alternative sources of energy

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Petroleum was formed millions of years ago from the remains of dead organisms in the seas.

Sea organisms died and and their remains accumulated at the bottom of the sea. In the course of time, sand and clay came to be deposited over these remains. The movement of water led to the deposition of more sand and clay over the remains. Over millions of years, a thick layer of organic material was thus formed.

The thick covering of sand and clay compressed the organic material. Under conditions of high pressure and temperature, and over millions of years, this organic material became converted into petroleum.

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The following are the four consequences of excessive use of fossil fuels.

(i) The rate of use of fossil fuels is very fast, so they may become exhausted within 20-30 years.

(ii) The cost of petroleum products may increase and may even go beyond the reach of an ordinary person.

(iii) Land may collapse, because of the creation of large hollow spaces inside the earth, if excessive mining of fossil fuels takes place.

(iv) The burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere.

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The useful substances obtained from natural gas and petroleum are called petrochemicals.

Petrochemicals are very important because they provide raw materials for the preparation of different substances, such as synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastic, fertilisers, explosives, perfumes, dyes, drugs and varnishes.

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The refining of petroleum is the process of separation of useful fractions from petroleum by the method of fractional distillation.
This process is carried out in a petroleum refinery. Petroleum refineries in India are located in Mumbai, Chennai, Digboi, Barauni and other places. Among the products obtained from the refining of petroleum are petrol, kerosene, diesel oil, lubricating oil, petroleum jelly and paraffin wax.

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Fossil fuels are present in limited quantities in nature. They can become exhausted if large amounts are used continuously by humans. Hence, fossil fuels are grouped under exhaustible natural resources.

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The formation of coal is a slow chemical process by which wood is converted into coal over a period of time. This process occurs in high temperatures and pressures by the decomposition of plants and trees buried deep inside the earth, in the absence of air. This process is called the carbonisation process.

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Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations and in other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds. It is also found as methane clathrates.

Natural gas is considered a clean fuel for the following reasons.
(i) It causes very little pollution.
(ii) It does not produce any poisonous gas on burning.

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The following are two important uses of compressed natural gas (CNG).
(i) For power generation
(ii) As a source of hydrogen gas, which is required by the fertiliser industry.

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Petroleum is called 'black gold' because it is very expensive, useful and valuable and its crude form is black in colour. It is a fossil fuel that is obtained when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.

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The following are the suggestions made by the Petroleum Conservation Research Association to save petrol and diesel while driving:

(i) Drive at a moderate and constant speed (40-45 km per hour). Driving at very high or very low speed leads to the use of more fuel.

(ii) Check the air pressure in the tyres periodically.

(iii) Opt for regular maintenance of the vehicle at company-owned workshops rather than local workshops.

(iv) Switch off the engine while waiting for somebody or at a traffic signal.



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