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(c) 118

There are 118 elements known to us.

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(c) both
Metalloids have the properties of both metals and non-metals.

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(a) graphite
Graphite is used for making pencil lead.

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(a) mercury
Mercury is a metal found in liquid state.

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(a) arsenic
Arsenic is a metalloid.

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(a) sodium
Sodium reacts with hydrochloric acid and gives sodium chloride and hydrogen.

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(c) aluminium
Aluminium is used in food packaging.

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(a) arsenic
Arsenic is a metalloid. Copper, aluminium and iron are metals.

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(c) graphite
Graphite is an allotrope of carbon that is used in making pencil lead.

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1. Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides.
2. Iron is more reactive than copper.
3. Metals usually displace hydrogen from acids.
4. A material that can be flattened into sheets by beating or rolling is called a metal.
5. Silver, gold and platinum are non-reactive metals.

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Column A Column B
1. Gold   (e) Jewellery
2. Iron (d) Bridges
3. Aluminium (a) Wrapping food
4. Mercury (b) Thermometer
5. Copper (c) Electric wires

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1. True

2. False
Metals are generally hard with the exception of sodium and potassium, which can be cut with a knife.

3. False
Aluminium is a metal.

4. True

5. True



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Steel plant Location Specialities
1. Bhilai Steel Plant Bhilai Rails and other steel products
2. Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. Raigarh Steel, iron, electrical generation and distribution
3. Rastriya Ispat Nigam Visakhapatnam Steel
4. Bokaro Steel Plant Bokaro Hot rolled and cold rolled
5. Tata Steel Plant Tata Steel, flat steel products, long steel products, wire products, plates

Our country does not have enough industries to consume all the mined haematite. So, it is exported from India to countries like Japan and they sell it back to us at ten times the original cost. In order to increase the consumption of these mined haematite, government needs to increase the number of industries. To improve the quality of production, these industries should strive upon the necessary improvement in infrastructure.

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Mercury is used in clinical thermometers because it is a good conductor of heat and is found in liquid state. Being a liquid, it expands when heated. Mercury also has a high boiling point. Hence, a slight change in temperature can be measured easily by the rise of the mercury column in the thermometer. It can also be used to measure high temperatures.

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Metals that are more reactive than hydrogen, replace hydrogen from its acids by a displacement reaction.
Word equation:
Sodium + Hydrochloric acid → Sodium chloride + Hydrogen

Non-metals do not react with dilute acids; therefore they cannot replace hydrogen from acids.

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Non-metals are not sonorous. So, they do not produce sounds or metallic clinks. Hence, bells are not made of non-metals.

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Plastic or wooden handles are non-conductors of electricity. So, in order to protect the electrician from getting an electric shock or any kind of electrical accidents, the screw drivers used by an electrician have plastic or wooden handles.

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Aluminium is a metal used for packing food.

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Metals and non-metals are two main groups of elements.

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Sodium is a metal that can be cut with a knife.

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Helium and nitrogen are two gaseous non-metals.

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Mercury and gallium are found in liquid state.
Note: Gallium is liquid at room temperature but it becomes a solid below room temperature.

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Gold, silver, copper and iron are highly ductile metals.

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Mercury is a metal which is a liquid at room temperature.

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Metalloids are elements that possess the characteristics of both metals and non-metals. Examples: silicon, boron, germanium, arsenic

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Chromium and nickel are two metals used for electroplating.

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Chlorine is used for purification of water.

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When metals react with oxygen, they produce metal oxides.
For example, when magnesium reacts with oxygen, it gives magnesium oxide.
Word equation:
Magnesium + Oxygen → Magnesium Oxide

Dissolving magnesium oxide in water gives magnesium hydroxide.
Word equation:
Magnesium oxide + Water → Magnesium Hydroxide

Now, when this solution is tested with red litmus, the red litmus turns blue. This shows that the solution is basic.

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Following are the conditions necessary for the rusting of iron:
(i) Presence of air (oxygen)
(ii) Presence of moisture (water)

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Ductility is a property of metals. It means that metals can be drawn into thin wires. Example: Gold, silver, copper and iron are highly ductile metals.

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Word equation for the reaction of aluminium with hydrochloric acid:
Aluminium + Hydrochloric acid → Aluminium chloride + Hydrogen gas

Word equation for the reaction of sulphur dioxide gas with water:
Sulphur dioxide + Water → Sulphurous acid

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When sodium oxide reacts with water, sodium hydroxide is produced.

Word equation for the reaction of sodium oxide with water:
 Sodium oxide + Water → Sodium hydroxide



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When a piece of iron is placed in copper sulphate solution, we would have the following observation:

Observation:
The blue colour of copper sulphate will get reduced with time and the solution will turn green. Reddish brown precipitate of copper will deposit at the base of the container in which reaction is taking place.

Conclusion:
Iron is more reactive than copper because of which the displacement reaction occurs; copper is slowly displaced by iron.
Word equation: Copper sulphate + Iron → Copper + Iron sulphate

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Properties Metal Non-metal
1. Physical state Generally solid at room temperature
Exception: mercury and gallium (liquid)
Generally solid or gas
Exception: bromine (liquid)
2. Hardness Generally hard
Exception: Sodium and potassium are soft and can be cut with knife.
Generally soft
Exception: diamond
3. Lustre Metals have a metallic lustre, which means that they have shiny surfaces. Non-metals are non-lustrous.
Exception: diamond and iodine
4. Malleability Metals are malleable, i.e., they can be beaten into thin sheets. Non-metals are non-malleable.
5. Ductility Metals are ductile.          Non-metals are brittle.
6. Conductivity Good conductors of heat and electricity. Bad or poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Exception: graphite
7. Melting and boiling point High melting and boiling points.
Exception: sodium and potassium
Low melting and boiling points.
Exception: graphite and diamond
8. Sonority They are sonorous. They are non-sonorous.
9. Tensile strength High tensile strength. Low tensile strength.

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Elements are the purest substances that consist of only one type of atoms. They cannot be broken down further into simpler units.

Classification of elements:
Elements are classified into metals, metalloids and non-metals.

(i) Metals: The elements that are lustrous, hard, ductile, malleable, sonorous and good conductors of heat and electricity.

(ii) Non-metals: The elements that are non-lustrous, brittle, non-ductile, non-malleable and poor conductors of heat and electricity.

(iii) Metalloids: The elements that possess the characteristics of both metals and non-metals.

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The shining on the surface of a metal is called its metallic lustre. Surfaces of metals are generally shiny when they are in their pure state. Due to this shining property of metals, they are used in making ornaments.
Example:
(i) Copper is reddish brown and gold is generally yellow.
(ii) Magnesium, silver and aluminium appear white.

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Generally, metals react with acids and displace hydrogen from them. After the reaction, metal salts and hydrogen gas are obtained.

Word equation:
Sodium + Hydrochloric acid → Sodium chloride + Hydrogen

Noble metals like silver, gold, copper and platinum do not react with acids. Hence, no displacement of hydrogen takes place.

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Copper forms a green layer on its surface on corroding. When copper is exposed to damp air for a long time, a coating of basic copper carbonate is formed. This coating is green in colour.
Word equation:
Copper + Water + Carbon dioxide + Oxygen → Copper carbonate + Copper hydroxide

No, aluminium does not rust in the presence of damp air because it does not react with water under ordinary conditions.

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(a) Zinc: It is used to protect iron by the process of galvanisation.

(b) Iron: It is used as a catalyst in Haber's process during the production of ammonia.

(c) Aluminium: It is used in making foils for packaging different materials like cigarettes, medicines and food.

(d) Gold: Gold amalgam is used by dentists to fill tooth cavities.

(e) Mercury: It is used in thermometers.

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Silver gets deposited on the surface of copper when copper reacts with silver nitrate. The colourless solution turns blue. Copper displaces silver from silver nitrate and forms copper nitrate and silver. This reaction is called a displacement reaction.

Word equation:
Silver nitrate + Copper → Copper nitrate + Silver

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The following are two uses of phosphorous:
(i) It is used to manufacture phosphoric acid and superphosphate fertiliser.
(ii) It is used to manufacture matchsticks, rat poison, alloys, fireworks and smoke screens.

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Aluminium is used for making electrical transmission wires because it is a good conductor of electricity and its alloys can tolerate high voltage.

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Metal chlorides are formed when an acid reacts with a metal. Metal replaces the hydrogen from the acid and forms metal chloride. Hydrogen gas is also evolved.
Word equation:
Sodium + Hydrochloric acid → Sodium chloride + Hydrogen gas

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Noble metals are metals that generally show less reactivity or no reactivity with any reagent. They are lustrous. Hence, they are used in making ornaments.

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Following are two uses of sulphur:
(i) Primarily, it is used for making sulphuric acid.
(ii) Sulphuric acid is used for making plastics, synthetic fibres, drugs, dyes, explosives, detergents, fertilisers and germicides. It is also used in beauty parlours and for vulcanisation.

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Physical properties Metals Non-metals
1. Physical state Generally solid at room temperature.
Exception: mercury and gallium (liquid)
Generally solid or gas.
Exception: bromine (liquid)
2. Hardness Generally hard
Exception: sodium and potassium are soft and can be cut with knife.
Generally soft.
Exception: diamond
3. Lustre Metals have a metallic lustre, which means that they have shiny surfaces. Non-metals are non-lustrous.
Exception: diamond and iodine
4. Density Generally have high density.
Exception: sodium, potassium magnesium, aluminium and lithium
(lightest metal)
Generally have low density.
5. Malleability Metals are malleable, which means that they can be beaten into sheets or foils. Non-metals are non-malleable.

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Metals are good conductors of heat. This can be explained with the help of the following experiment:

Experiment:
(i) Take different pieces of metals like iron, zinc or aluminium.
(ii) Hold the pieces of metals using a clamp stand.
(iii) Heat a piece of one metal using a burner.
(iv) Check the temperature of the metal with a thermometer.
(v) Repeat this experiment with each material.



Observation:
The temperature of each material will increase.
Conclusion:
Metals are good conductors of heat.



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