Living Science 2019 Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 7 Conservation Of Plants And Animals are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Conservation Of Plants And Animals are extremely popular among Class 8 students for Science Conservation Of Plants And Animals Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Living Science 2019 Book of Class 8 Science Chapter 7 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Living Science 2019 Solutions. All Living Science 2019 Solutions for class Class 8 Science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 97:

Question 1:

What are you referring to when you talk about the flora and fauna of a place?

Answer:

Flora of a region encompasses all the plants of a region and fauna refers to all the animals present in a region.

Page No 97:

Question 2:

Give one word for 'variety of all forms of life found in a region'.

Answer:

'Variety of all forms of life present in a region' constitute the biodiversity of that region.

Page No 97:

Question 3:

You would have read that trees take water from the soil and use it by tanspiration. This implies that in a forest, trees will reduce groundwater by losing it in transpiration. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

Trees do not reduce groundwater by transpiration. Trees regulate water cycle by releasing the water through transpiration. This water condenses in the form of rain, which maintains the groundwater level. Moreover, tree also increase the absorption of rainwater by the soil, which maintains the water table.

Page No 97:

Question 4:

If you cut down all trees in a place, what effect could this have on the land?

Answer:

The cutting down of all trees in a place will have following effects on the land:

1. The rate of soil erosion will increase.

2. Continued soil erosion can lead to desertification.

3. The water absorbing capacity of soil will be decreased, which will effect the groundwater level.

4. The ecological balance of the place will be disturbed.

5. The local biodiversity will be severely depleted.

Page No 97:

Question 5:

Which species of animals cannot be found on the earth- extinct or endangered?

Answer:

Extinct species cannot be found on the Earth because all the members of these species have disappeared from the Earth. Some examples of extinct species are dinosaur and dodo.



Page No 101:

Question 1:

Harvesting of a crop means cutting down all the plants of the crops in the field. Similarly, planned harvesting of trees means cutting down all trees in a forest. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

Planned harvesting is a method of forest conservation. In this method, some of the trees in an area are cut. The trees that are left uncut help in the prevention of soil erosion. Moreover, these trees also produce seeds, which allow the growth of new trees. Thus, planned harvesting of trees does not refer to the cutting down all trees in an area.

Page No 101:

Question 2:

An animal species that is widely distributed over the earth is said to be endemic. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

The distribution of some species is restricted to a particular region. These species are defined as endemic species. The endemic species are primarily found in their natural habitat and these species are not naturally found outside their area of distribution. Thus, endemic species are not widely distributed throughout the Earth.

Page No 101:

Question 3:

Saving paper means saving trees. Why?

Answer:

Paper are obtained from the wood pulp. In order to obtain one ton of paper, approximately seventeen fully developed trees are required. Thus, saving paper will reduce the number of trees required for paper production and will help in conservation of forests.

Page No 101:

Question 4:

What is the purpose of producing the Red List and the Red Data Book?

Answer:

Red list and Red Data Book serve as tools for the assessment of conservation status of species around the world. These are useful in identifying the species that face the threat of extinction.



Page No 103:

Question 1:

The plants found in a particular region are known as the
(a) fauna.
(b) flora.
(c) endangered species.
(d) endemic species of that region.

Answer:

(b) flora.
The plants of a particular region are called flora of that region.

Page No 103:

Question 2:

Which one of the following is not a conservation category of wildlife?
(a) extinct
(b) endangered
(c) endemic
(d) vulnerable

Answer:

(c) endemic

Red data book has the following categories of conservation of species:
(i) extinct, (ii) extinct in wild, (iii) critically endangered, (iv) endangered, (v) vulnerable and (vi) rare. Thus, it does not have a record of endemic species.

Page No 103:

Question 3:

Which of these is not caused by deforestation?
(a) desertification
(b) global warming
(c) reduction in groundwater
(d) storms

Answer:

(d) storms
Deforestation is removal or deterioration of forest cover of an area. It leads to the following consequences:
(i) desertification (due to decrease in amount and periodicity of rainfall)
(ii) global warming (due to increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration)
(iii) groundwater level depletion  

Page No 103:

Question 4:

Dodo is a/an
(a) critically-endangered species
(b) extinct species
(c) endangered species
(d) vulnerable species

Answer:

(b) extinct species
Dodo is an example of extinct species, as it has been eliminated from the earth.

Page No 103:

Question 5:

Different species are classified into different threat categories in the
(a) Blue Data Book.
(b) Yellow Data Book.
(c) Black Data Book.
(d) Red Data Book.

Answer:

(d) Red Data Book
Red Data Book is a compilation of data on various categories of endangered plants and animals.

Page No 103:

Question 6:

WWF works in the field of
(a) wildlife conservation.
(b) child labour.
(c) forest conservation.
(d) water conservation.

Answer:

(a) wildlife conservation

WWF stands for World Wide Fund for nature. It works in the field of wildlife conservation.

Page No 103:

Question 7:

Which of these is extinct?
(a) Asiatic lion
(b) leopard
(c) dodo
(d) tiger

Answer:

(c) dodo
Dodo is an extinct species.

Page No 103:

Question 8:

Which of these is endangered?
(a) dodo
(b) Asiatic lion
(c) dinosaur
(d) sikkim stag

Answer:

(b) Asiatic lion

Asiatic lion is an endangered species. All the other options are examples of extinct species.

Page No 103:

Question 1:

What do you mean by biodiversity of an area?

Answer:

Biodiversity of an area refers to the vast number of species of plants, animals and microorganisms existing in that area.

Page No 103:

Question 2:

What does 'fauna' refer to− plants or animals?

Answer:

Fauna refers to animals, whereas flora refers to plants.

Page No 103:

Question 3:

Forests are helpful in checking floods. Do you agree?

Answer:

Yes, I agree with the statement. Forests provide plant cover to check the flow of water. If forests are removed, then floods will occur.

Page No 103:

Question 4:

Endangered animals no longer exist on the earth. True or false?

Answer:

False.

Endangered animals are those species whose numbers are diminishing at an alarming rate and face an immediate danger of extinction.

Page No 103:

Question 5:

If all trees in a forest are cut, it will lead to _________ of soil.

Answer:

If all trees in a forest are cut, it will lead to erosion of soil.

Page No 103:

Question 6:

__________ by cattle should be controlled for forest conservation.

Answer:

Grazing by cattle should be controlled for forest conservation.

Page No 103:

Question 7:

Soil erosion can finally lead to desertification. True or false?

Answer:

True.
Soil erosion is the removal of top layer of soil that is most fertile. If not checked, soil erosion ultimately leads to desertification.

Page No 103:

Question 8:

The flora and fauna of a country are among the most important __________
(renewable/non-renewable) natural resources.

Answer:

The flora and fauna of a country are among the most important renewable natural resources.

Page No 103:

Question 9:

Are the dinosaurs endangered or extinct?

Answer:

Dinosaurs are extinct because no living member of this species is present on earth.

Page No 103:

Question 10:

Wildlife conservation and __________ conservation are closely related.

Answer:

Wildlife conservation and forest conservation are closely related.

Page No 103:

Question 11:

A tiger reserve can be called a biosphere reserve. True or false?

Answer:

False.
A biosphere reserve comprises of three core areas: natural zone, buffer zone and transition zone. These zones are not present in a tiger reserve.



Page No 104:

Question 12:

Saving paper means saving __________

Answer:

Saving paper means saving trees.

Page No 104:

Question 13:

Species which are confined to a restricted area on the earth are known as __________ species.

Answer:

Species that are confined to a restricted area on the earth are known as endemic species.

Page No 104:

Question 14:

The Red List is a list of __________ animals.

Answer:

The Red List is a list of endangered animals.

Page No 104:

Question 1:

What is biodiversity?

Answer:

Biodiversity is the term describing the variety of life on earth, including plants and animals. It reflects the number, variability and variety of living organisms and how these change from one location to another over a period of time.

Page No 104:

Question 2:

What do you mean by flora and fauna?

Answer:

The plant life of an area or a region is termed as flora.
The animal life of an area is termed as fauna.

Page No 104:

Question 3:

What is deforestation?

Answer:

The cutting of forests and using that land for other purposes is called deforestation. Deforestation takes place due to an increased demand for wood and land for constructing factories, houses, roads and dams.

Page No 104:

Question 4:

Why do some animals become endangered?

Answer:

Some animals become endangered because their population is already low. Also activities such as illegal hunting and deforestation further reduces their natural population.

Page No 104:

Question 5:

What is a biosphere reserve?

Answer:

A biosphere reserve is a protected area meant for the conservation of plant and animal life. A biosphere reserve also provides awareness about the environment and eco-friendly living.

Page No 104:

Question 6:

What are endemic species?

Answer:

Endemic species are those species of plants and animals that are found in a specific geographical area and no other place. Example: Wild mango and giant squirrel are endemic species of Pachmarhi.

Page No 104:

Question 7:

Why did IUCN prepare the Red Data Book?

Answer:

IUCN prepared the Red Data Book because it  keeps a record of all endangered animals and plants. Through this book, IUCN is trying to create awareness about the endangered species.

Page No 104:

Question 8:

Into what categories are the species listed in the Red List and Red Data Book classified?

Answer:

The species listed in the Red List and Red Data Book are classified into the following categories:
(a) Extinct
(b) Extinct in wild
(c) Critically endangered
(d) Endangered
(e) Vulnerable
(f) Lower risk
(g) Rare species

Page No 104:

Question 1:

List four ways in which forests are useful to us.

Answer:

Forests are useful to us in following ways:
(a) All the food we eat comes from plants and animals which are an essential component of forests.
(b) Forests regulate global climate.
(c) Wood used as timber in construction and furniture works comes from trees in the forests.
(d) Forest cover is essential for retention of rainwater.

Page No 104:

Question 2:

List three main causes of deforestation.

Answer:

Following are the three main causes of deforestation:
(a) Overgrazing: The cattle graze in forests tramples seedling and causes compaction of soil.
(b) Forests fire: It is a natural cause. Forest fires in the past have destroyed a vast area of forest in Indonesia.
(c) Hydroelectric projects: Construction of dams for hydroelectric projects submerge forest tracts, killing all plants and animals.

Page No 104:

Question 3:

'Deforestation can lead to desertification'. How?

Answer:

Deforestation causes soil erosion. Removal of top layer of soil exposes the lower, hard layers of soil. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Gradually, the fertile land gets converted into deserts. This is called desertification. Hence, 'deforestation can lead to desertification'.

Page No 104:

Question 4:

What effect can deforestation have on groundwater? Give reasons.

Answer:

Deforestation leads to the depletion of water table. The trees help in prevention of running of water by allowing the soil to absorb the flowing water. This water percolates down and groundwater level rises. However, when trees are cut, water runs off quickly as soil is unable to absorb the flowing water. Thus, water does not percolate down and groundwater level depletes.

Page No 104:

Question 5:

What do you mean by planned harvesting of forests? How does it help in their conservation?

Answer:

Planned harvesting of forests means sustainable use of forest products with the involvement of local community. The local community helps in conserving the forests by not cutting the trees. Instead, more trees are planted by the joint efforts of government and local community. It is popularly known as Joint Forest Management.

Page No 104:

Question 6:

In what ways are wildlife conservation and forest conservation related?

Answer:

Wildlife depends on forest for food and shelter. So, forest conservation is directly related to wildlife conservation. If the forest of an area is conserved, then the wildlife of the same area also gets protected as they get plenty of food and proper shelter.

Page No 104:

Question 7:

What is the difference between a wildlife sanctuary and a biosphere reserve?

Answer:

 

Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
It is an area where wildlife gets protection from being hunted. It is an area meant for protection of wildlife along with traditional life of the tribals living in that area.
Activities such as collection of forests products and harvesting of timber is allowed. Each biosphere reserve has three zones:
(i) Core zone: No human activity is allowed.
(ii) Buffer zone: Limited human activities such as research and education are allowed.
(iii)Transition zone: Activities such as cropping and settlements are allowed.

Page No 104:

Question 1:

Discuss five methods of forest conservation.

Answer:

Following are the five methods of forest conservation:

(a) Reforestation:
It is the act of planting more trees to replace the cut trees.
(b) Discouraging killing of animals:
People should not buy any item made from animal skins such as horns and feathers.
(c) Conservation programmes:
Some organisations help in conservation of forests through their projects, programmes and joint efforts with the government.
(d) Reduce, reuse and recycle:
By reducing our usage of paper, we can conserve many trees in a year. Paper can also be reused and recycled. By doing this, we conserve our forests.
(e) Laws to conserve forests:
Legal act such as The Forest (Conservation) Act passed by the Government of India aims at preserving and conserving natural forests and meeting the needs of people living near the forests.

Page No 104:

Question 2:

What are the consequences of deforestation?

Answer:

The consequences of deforestation are as follows:

(a) Deforestation reduces rainfall:
Due to deforesting, level of carbon dioxide in the environment increases, which, in turn, increases the earth's temperature.
(b) Danger to wildlife:
Forests are natural habitat of wildlife. Due to deforestation, natural habitats get destroyed and face extreme danger.
(c) Rise in temperature:
Due to increased amount of carbon dioxide in the environment, temperature of the earth increases.
(d) Increased soil erosion:
Soil gets exposed due to deforestation and loses its fertility.

Page No 104:

Question 3:

Discuss the steps necessary for wildlife conservation.

Answer:

The various steps necessary for wildlife conservation are as follows:

(a) All the known endangered species should be protected.
(b) Feeding places of migratory birds should be identified and protected.
(c) Wildlife conservation laws should be enacted and should meet out strict punishment to anyone violating these laws.
(d) Wild relatives of all the economically important organisms should be identified and conserved in protected areas.

Page No 104:

Question 1:

To conserve forests, we should ban cutting trees completely. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

I do not agree with the statement. To conserve forests, we should prefer sustainable forest management. It means that if we cut one tree, then we must plant four new trees. In this way, we can conserve forests for our future generations. Active participation of local community living near the forest is also essential.

Page No 104:

Question 2:

Animals are protected in a zoo (zoological gardens) also. What is the difference between a zoo and a wildlife sanctuary? Where do you think animals will be happier?

Answer:

 

Zoo Wildlife Sanctuary
It is a place where animals are provided with facilities such as food, medical care and treatment. It is an area where animals are protected from hunters.
Animals cannot move freely as they are kept in cage. Animals can move freely as they are protected in their natural habitat.

Animals will be happier in wildlife sanctuary because it provides a natural habitat to them. In zoo, the animals are kept in cages, which restricts their movement.

Page No 104:

Question 3:

When you plant saplings in a forest for afforestation, it takes several years for them to grow into big trees. A construction company thought of doing planned harvesting in a forest. They cut 10 trees every month and planted 10 new saplings every month as replacement.  Do you think they will be successful in maintaining the number of trees in the forest? What change in strategy can you suggest?

Answer:

The construction company will not be able to maintain the number of trees in the forests. As there are various factors that decide the growth of sapling into a tree, it is not necessary that every sapling will grow into a complete tree. Hence, the company should plant five saplings for every tree cut.



Page No 105:

Question 4:

Tribals depend on forests for food and livelihood. Is it fair to prevent them from entering the forests? How can their symbiotic relationship be maintained?

Answer:

It is not fair to prevent the entry of tribals into forests. Instead, tribals should be educated about the various beneficial aspects of forests. Also, government should involve tribals in conserving the forests through active participation in programmes such as Joint Forest Management. In this way, tribals would get the resources for their daily living and in turn forests would also be conserved.

Page No 105:

Question 1:

It is often said that by protecting the tiger, we actually protect all other forms of flora and fauna. Is that true? Why?
Suppose the project of protecting the tiger went off so well that the population of tigers increased tremendously. Would that be desirable? Why?

Answer:

Yes, it is true that by protecting the tigers, we protect all other forms of flora and fauna. Tigers are known as umbrella species. It is a term used for species whose conservation and protection would indirectly lead to the conservation of other species of flora and fauna.
Protecting the tiger means the flora and fauna of that region also gets protection and conservation.

No, a tremendous increase in the tiger population is not desirable. A tremendous increase in the population of tigers means, the food chain gets disturbed and poses a threat to the existence of other animals.

Page No 105:

Question 1:

Salma is fond of plants and animals. She has a bird house at her home where she puts some grain and water every day. She enjoys looking at the birds feeding and drinking at the bird house.
What values does Salma Show?

Answer:

From the above scenario, we can say that Salma is a caring and loving girl. She cares about the birds and thus provides them with food and shelter.



View NCERT Solutions for all chapters of Class 8