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#### Question 1:

What happens when we try to push an inflated balloon into a bucket of water?

When we try to push an inflated balloon into a bucket of water, the water seems to be pushing the balloon upwards due to the pressure that water exerts on the balloon.

#### Question 2:

What is atmospheric pressure due to?

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by weight of air above at any point on the earth’s surface.

#### Question 3:

Why it is necessary for astronauts to wear pressurized suits?

In outer space, the pressure is much lower than atmospheric pressure on Earth. At such low pressures, blood pressure in the blood vessels can lead to bursting open of blood vessels and kill a person. To prevent this and allow themselves to work safely in space, astronauts wear pressure suits.

#### Question 1:

Write one word for the following.

 1 Force per unit area .................... 2 Liquids and gases together .................... 3 An instrument to measure atmospheric pressure .................... 4 An instrument used to measure pressure ....................

1. Pressure
2. Fluids
3. Barometer
4. Pressure gauge

#### Question 2:

Define/Explain the following.
1. Pressure
2. pascal
3. Atmospheric pressure
4. Liquid pressure

1. Pressure is defined as force per unit of area.
2. Pascal (Pa) is the SI unit of pressure, which is Newton (N) per metre (m2)  i.e. N/m2.
3. Atmospheric pressure is defined as the pressure exerted on an object by the air above it.
4. Liquid pressure is the pressure exerted on an object by the liquid in which it is immersed, where a net upward force determines whether the object will sink or float.

#### Question 1:

Pressure equals
(a) force/volume
(b) force × area
(c) force/area
(d) force  × volume

(c) force/area
Pressure is force per unit area.

#### Question 2:

A barometer is an instrument that measures
(a) atmospheric temperature
(b) force
(c) volume
(d) none of these

(d) none of these
A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

#### Question 3:

The atmospheric pressure of a place
(a) decreases as altitude decreases
(b) increases as altitude increases
(c) decreases as altitude increases
(d) does not depend on altitude

(c) decreases as altitude increases
Atmospheric pressure decreases as one goes up.

#### Question 4:

Rubber suckers stick to a smooth surface because
(a) of a special type of glue
(b) rubber is sticky
(c) a partial vacuum is created and the atmospheric pressure keeps it in place
(d) the smooth surface has no friction

(c) a partial vacuum is created and the atmospheric pressure keeps it in place

Rubber suckers can create partial vacuum and they in remain in place because of atmospheric pressure.

#### Question 5:

To ensure that skies do not sink into the snow too far, they
(a) should be flat and have a large area
(b) should be slim and have a small area
(c) should be thin and sharp
(d) should have studs

(a)should be flat and have a large area

Skies are flat and have a large area to avoid sinking into the snow.

#### Question 1:

Match the following.

 column A Column B Pressure Unit of pressure Liquids and gases Barometer Atmospheric pressure Force per unit area pascal Fluids

 Column A Column B Pressure Force per unit area Liquids and gases Fluids Atmospheric pressure Barometer pascal Unit of pressure

#### Question 4:

What is the effect of altitude on atmospheric pressure?

The atmospheric pressure depends on the altitude and decreases as the altitude increases.

#### Question 5:

How does liquid pressure vary with depth?

Liquid pressure increases with increase in depth.

#### Question 6:

Why are dams made stronger and thicker at the bottom than at the top?

Liquid pressure increases with increasing depth. To withstand the greater pressure at the bottom of a water reservoir, dams are thicker at the bottom than at the top.

#### Question 1:

A force of 25 N acts on an area of 25 cm2. Calculate the pressure produced.

#### Question 2:

What is the force needed to produce a pressure of 1 pascal over a square area of side 2 m?

#### Question 3:

Over what area should a force of 100 N act to produce a pressure of 500 pascal?

#### Question 1:

Explain why a balloon bursts when too much air is blown into it.

Being fluids, gases have a property, to exert pressure on bodies immersed in them and on the walls of the container holding them. That is the reason for which a balloon expands when air is blown into it. The air inside the balloon exerts pressure on the inner walls of the balloon. If too much air is blown into the balloon, then the balloon is incapable of withstanding the pressure and it bursts.

#### Question 2:

How would you demonstrate the presence of atmospheric pressure?

To show the presence of atmospheric pressure, you need a glass tumbler, a stiff cardboard and water. Take the tumbler and fill it with water such that it is full till the brim. Cover it with a cardboard piece. Then place your hand over the cardboard piece on the tumbler and quickly invert it. Now, slowly, remove your hand while supporting the cardboard piece. It is observed that the cardboard piece does not fall. This proves that there is atmospheric pressure that provides enough force to support the weight of the water in the tumbler.

#### Question 3:

Explain briefly the construction and working of an open tube manometer.

Open tube manometer is a type of simple pressure gauge, an instrument that measures pressure. A manometer is made up of a U-shaped tube containing liquid or sometimes water. One arm of the U-shaped tube is open to the air while the other arm is connected to the vessel in which pressure is being measured. The difference in liquid levels shows the applied pressure.

#### Question 4:

How would you show that liquids exert pressure in all directions?

Take a rubber pipe, which is 30 cm in length and a balloon with a mouth that fits tightly onto the pipe. The balloon is taken and without blowing, it is attached to one end of the pipe. Water is filled through one end of the pipe and observed. The tube is then held in a way that the balloon is at different angles, vertical, horizontal and upside down. It is observed that the balloon bulges out due to the pressure of water irrespective of the position of the tube and the angle of the balloon. This proves that water and other liquids exert pressure in all directions.

#### Question 5:

Describe any two applications of pressure.