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Page No 199:

Question 1:

Name the two charged particles in an atom.

Answer:

The two charged particles in an atom are:

  1. Protons : Positively charged particles
  2. Electrons: Negatively charged particles

Page No 199:

Question 2:

Give any two methods of charging an object.

Answer:

Charging by friction and charging by conduction are two methods of charging an object:

  1. Charging by friction: In this method, transfer of charges takes place by rubbing one material with the other.
  2. Charging by conduction: In this method, transfer of charges takes place by touching an object with a charged material. 

Page No 199:

Question 3:

Why should we protect ourselves during a thunderstorm?

Answer:

During thunderstorms, charge built up in clouds is discharged as lightning. The lightning bolt carries a very large amount of current, which heats up the air around it and also heats up the objects it hits. The large current and heat can cause heavy damage to structures, injure or even kill people. Therefore, we need to protect ourselves during a thunderstorm.

Page No 199:

Question 4:

Name an earthquake-prone area in India.

Answer:

Kashmir is a region in India which is prone to earth quakes.

Page No 199:

Question 5:

What is seismology?

Answer:

Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and their related phenomena.

Page No 199:

Question 1:

Describe the construction and working of an electroscope.

Answer:



An electroscope is a device used in the detection and measurement of electric charges. It has two thin metal leaves. A metal rod connects the leaves to a metallic knob. 
Working: When a charged body is made to touch the metal knob, the charge gets transferred to the metal leaves through the metal rod. The metal leaves repel each other showing that they carry similar charges. In this manner, an electroscope can detect if an object carries a charge.
An electroscope is shown in the image:

Page No 199:

Question 2:

Explain briefly how lightning occurs.

Answer:

Lightning is produced in thunderclouds which carry electric charges. The lower portion of the clouds carries negative charges and upper portions carry positive charge. When the charges accumulate, the electric field strength overpowers the air’s insulating property, resulting in an electrical discharge (a flash of lightning). Water droplets present in the air adds to the conductive property of air.

Page No 199:

Question 3:

Explain how a lightning conductor works.

Answer:

 Lightning conductors are used to protect buildings from damage during lightning strikes. It is a metal rod which basically runs through the entire length along the outer wall of the structure. The bottom end of the rod is connected deep into the ground to a metal plate.  When a lightning strikes, the lightning conductor provides a direct and easy path for the bolt of lightning to pass into the ground, thus saving the building from damage.

Page No 199:

Question 4:

Write any two safety measures to be taken during lightning.

Answer:

The two safety measures to be employed during lightning are:
 

  1. Take shelter indoors or inside some big vehicles such as trucks or cars.
  2. Do not run over large open fields or high grounds.

Page No 199:

Question 1:

Define/Explain the following.
1. Protons
2. Electrons
3. Discharging
4. Earthing
5. Earthquake
6. Plate tectonics
7. Seismic zones
8. Seismograph
9. Seismogram
10. Focus (with respect to earthquakes)
11. Epicentre
12. Seismic waves

Answer:

  1. Protons: Protons are extremely tiny particles found in an atom which have a positive charge.
  2. Electrons: Electrons are extremely tiny particles found in an atom which have a negative charge.
  3. Discharging: The process of release of electric charges from a charged object to an uncharged object in contact with it, until the charges on both the objects become equal is called discharging.
  4. Earthing: The process of releasing excess electric charges from a charged body into the earth is called earthing.
  5. Earthquake: An earthquake is a sudden movement of the rocks in the earth’s crust.
  6. Plate tectonics: The theory that the earth’s lithosphere(outer layer of the earth) is divided into many plates which move with respect to one another is called the plate tectonics.
  7. Seismic zones: Seismic zones or fault zones are the boundaries of lithospheric plates at which the earthquakes generally occur.
  8. Seismograph: An instrument used in the measurement of seismic waves is called seismograph.
  9. Seismogram: A graphical output from a seismograph, showing seismic activity of plates of Earth is called a seismogram.
  10. Focus: Focus of an earthquake is a place within the earth where the earthquake actually originates due to sudden movement of the plates.
  11. Epicentre: Epicentre is a point on the surface of the earth vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
  12. Seismic waves: The vibrations produced due to earthquake which travel in the form of waves within the earth or on the earth’s surface are called seismic waves.

Page No 199:

Question 1:

An object can be charged by
(a) friction
(b) conduction
(c) induction
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these
An object can be charged by friction, conduction and also induction.

Page No 199:

Question 2:

Which of these is used to protect buildings from the damaging effects of lightning?
(a) Electroscope
(b) Lightning conductor
(c) Plates
(d) Richter scale

Answer:

(b) Lightning conductor
Lightning conductor is used to protect buildings from the damaging effects of lightning.

Page No 199:

Question 3:

The layer immediately beneath the crust is
(a) mantle
(b) inner core
(c) crust
(d) outer core

Answer:

(a) Mantle
The layer immediately beneath the crust of Earth, is the mantle.

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Question 4:

A fault zone in the Earth's crust is also called a
(a) seismograph
(b) seismic zone
(c) mantle zone
(d) Richter scale

Answer:

(b) seismic zone
A fault zone in the Earth’s crust is called a seismic zone.

Page No 199:

Question 5:

The most common scale used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake is the
(a) seismic zone
(b) fault zone
(c) seismograph
(d) Richter scale

Answer:

(d) Richter scale
The most common scale used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake is called the Richter scale.

Page No 199:

Question 1:

Match the following.

Column A Column B
Electroscope Lithosphere
Earthing Detects charges
Charging by friction Discharge to the Earth
Plates Layer of semisolid rock
Mantle Rubbing

Answer:

Sl.No Column A Column B
1. Electroscope Detects charges
2. Earthing Discharge to the earth
3. Charging by friction Rubbing
4. Plates Lithosphere
5. Mantle Layer of semisolid rock



Page No 200:

Question 5:

Write a brief description of how an earthquake occurs.

Answer:

An earthquake is a sudden movement of the rocks in the earth’s crust caused by the tremendous release of energy from inside the crust of the earth. The upper layer of the earth which is the lithosphere is not continuous but broken into many pieces called plates. Due to the convection currents inside the earth, these plates are in constant movement with each other. This movement causes collisions and disturbances in the earth’s crust resulting in earthquakes on the surface of the earth. 

Page No 200:

Question 6:

Mention some precautions that should be take to minimize the damage caused by an earthquake.

Answer:

Earthquake is a natural phenomenon which we cannot prevent. However, we can minimize the damage caused by the earthquakes by taking few precautions such as:
 

  1. Using light weight materials in the construction of buildings in earthquake prone areas. This reduces the loss of life during the collapses of buildings when an earthquake occurs.
  2. Fixing of electrical appliances such as ceiling fans, air coolers firmly because these may cause severe injuries in case they fall down during an earthquake.

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Question 7:

How can you protect yourself during an earthquake?

Answer:

To protect our self during an earthquake we can:

  1. Take cover under a heavy cot or table when indoors.
  2. Stay away from trees, electric poles and tall buildings which might collapse when outdoors.
  3. Evacuate buildings and structures in an orderly manner and do not re-enter the building even after the earthquake has passed as the building may have been weakened.



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