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Page No 260:

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1. Wheat is a .................... (rabi/kharif) crop.
2. .................... (Wool/Nylon) is a synthetic fibre.
3. .................... (Sulphur/Graphite) is a good conductor of electricity.
4. A blue flame is also called a .................... (non-luminous/luminous) flame.
5. .................... (Siberian crane/Common crow) migrates to India during winter.

Answer:

  1. Wheat is a rabi crop.
  2. Nylon is a synthetic fibre.
  3. Graphite is a good conductor of electricity.
  4. A blue flame is also called a non-luminous flame.
  5. Siberian crane migrates to India during winter.

Page No 260:

Question 2:

Write T for the correct statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statement(s).
1. The smallest structure and functional unit of an organism is called unicellular organism.
2. Plant cells have a cell wall.
3. Animals that damage crops are called pests.
4. NPK is a chemical fertilizer.
5. Burrow is a method of irrigation.

Answer:

  1. F The smallest structure and functional unit of an organism is the cell.
  2. T
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F Furrow method is a traditional method of irrigation.

Page No 260:

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1. .................... (Thermoplastic/Thermosetting plastic) is a plastic that can be reheated and remoulded.
2. The .................... (outer zone/inner zone) is the hottest part of the candle flame.
3. CNG stands for .................... (compressed natural gas/compact natural gas).
4. Alligators and snakes are hunted  for their .................... (tusks/skin).
5. .................... (Chloroplasts/Chromoplasts) contain non-green pigments that give colour to flowers and fruits.

Answer:

  1. Thermoplastic is a plastic that can be reheated and remoulded.
  2. The outer zone is the hottest part of the candle flame.
  3. CNG stands for compressed natural gas.
  4. Alligators and snakes are hunted  for their skin.
  5. Chromoplasts contain non-green pigments that give colour to flowers and fruits.

Page No 260:

Question 2:

Write T for the correct statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statement(s).
1. Pituitary gland is called the master gland.
2. Petroleum is not a fossil fuel.
3. The addition of undesirable substances to the air is called air pollution.
4. Sodium can be cut with a knife.
5. Most synthetic fibres have poor elasticity.

Answer:

  1. T
  2. ​F  Petroleum is a fossil fuel.
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F  Most synthetic fibres have very high elasticity.

Page No 260:

Question A.1:

IUCN stands for international .................... for conservation of nature.
(a) union
(b) Unit
(c) group
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) Union

IUCN is an acronym for International Union for Conservation of Nature



Page No 261:

Question A.2:

Illegal hunting of animals is called
(a) poaching
(b) migration
(c) deforestation
(d) extinction

Answer:

(a) poaching

Illegal hunting of animals is known as poaching.

Page No 261:

Question A.3:

A multicellular organism is made up of
(a) single cell
(b) many cells
(c) two cells
(d) either (b) or (c)

Answer:

(d) either (b) or (c)

A multicellular organism is an organism that is made up of more than one cell.

Page No 261:

Question A.4:

Endocrine glands secretes chemicals called
(a) enzymes
(b) energy
(c) hormone
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) hormone

Endocrine glands secrete hormones.

Page No 261:

Question A.5:

During adolescene, it is important to eat
(a) junk food
(b) fish
(c) egg
(d) nutritious food

Answer:

(d) nutritious food

During adolescence the body grows quickly and a nutritious diet is required.

Page No 261:

Question A.6:

Fertilization is .................... in human beings.
(a) internal
(b) external
(c) outer
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) internal

Fertilization in humans is internal. 

Page No 261:

Question A.7:

There are about .................... botanical gardens world over.
(a) 1100
(b) 500
(c) 1500
(d) 1600

Answer:

(d) 1600

There are about 1600 botanical gardens worldwide.

Page No 261:

Question A.8:

Hydrocarbons burn with a blue or .................... flame.
(a) red
(b) yellow
(c) brown
(d) black

Answer:

(b) yellow

Hydrocarbons, when fuel rich, burn with a yellow flame.

Page No 261:

Question A.9:

Wood, charcoal, cow dung cakes, coal are examples of
(a) liquid fuels
(b) gaseous fuels
(c) solid fuels
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) Solid fuels

Wood, charcoal, cow dung cakes and coal are examples of solid fuels.

Page No 261:

Question A.10:

Chemical used to destroy weeds are called
(a) weeding
(b) weedicides
(c) pesticides
(d) either (a) or (c)

Answer:

(b) weedicides

Weedicides are chemicals used to destroy weeds.

Page No 261:

Question A.11:

Pea and gram are examples of
(a) pests
(b) weeds
(c) cereals
(d) leguminous plants

Answer:

(d) leguminous plants

Peas and gram are leguminous plants.

Page No 261:

Question A.12:

The process of cutting and gathering of crops is called
(a) crop rotation
(b) irrigation
(c) fertilizer
(d) harvesting

Answer:

(d) harvesting

The process of cutting and gathering crops is known as crop rotation.

Page No 261:

Question A.13:

The process of conversion of sugar into an acid or an alcohol by the action of microorganism is called
(a) food preservation
(b) fermentation
(c) food chain
(d) all of these

Answer:

(b) fermentation

Sugars are converted into acids or alcohol by the action of microorganisms by the process of fermentation.

Page No 261:

Question A.14:

Shells of .................... are used in toothpaste to give it a gritty texture.
(a) diatoms
(b) bacteria
(c) turtle
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) diatoms

The shells of diatoms are used for making toothpaste.

Page No 261:

Question A.15:

Acrylic fibres are also known as
(a) spandex
(b) polyester
(c) orlon and acrilan
(d) nylon

Answer:

(c) orlon and acrilan

Orlon and acrilan are acrylic fibres.

Page No 261:

Question B:

Write one word for the following.
1. Ability of a material to return to its original shape.
2. These are substances that produce heat and light energy on burning.
3. This is a complex mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons.
4. This refers to any park, building, cage, enclosure, or premise in which live animals are kept for public exhibition.
5. Loss or continual degradation of forest habitat due to natural or human-related activities.

Answer:

1. Elasticity
2. Fuels
3. Petroleum
4. Zoological parks
5. Deforestation

Page No 261:

Question C:

Write T for the correct statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statement(s).
1. The period of transition from childhood to adulthood is called puberty.
2. Animals that lay eggs, which hatch into offsprings are called viviparous animals.
3. The yellow flame in a candle is called non-luminous flame.
4. The property by virtue of which metals can be drawn into thin wires is called malleability.
5. Plough and other tools needed for large-scale production of crops are called leaching.

Answer:

1. False
The period of transition from childhood to adulthood is called adolescence.

2. False
Animals that lay eggs, which hatch into offsprings are called oviparous animals.

3. False
The yellow flame in a candle is called luminous flame.

4. False
The property by virtue of which metals can be drawn into thin wires is called ductility.

5. False
Leaching is a process by which chemical fertilisers may get washed into water bodies.



Page No 262:

Question D:

Circle the odd one.

1. Rice Maize Wheat (Hint: It is not a kharif crop.)
2. Compost Potash NPK (Hint: It is not a chemical fertilizer.)
3. Wool Cotton Nylon (Hint: It is a synthetic fibre.)
4. Gir Sariska Van Mahotsava (Hint: It is not a sanctuary.)
5. Puberty Insulin Thyroxine (Hint: It is not a hormone.)

Answer:

1. Wheat
2. Compost
3. Nylon
4. Van Mahotsava
5. Puberty

Page No 262:

Question E.1.1:

What is polyester? List out some of its uses.

Answer:

Polyester is a light weight and strong synthetic fibre having a good elasticity. To improve the properties of polyester, it is blended with natural fibres. Some of the uses of polyester are:
(i) It is used in making light weight sails.
(ii) It is used in magnetic recording tapes in audio, video cassettes.
(iii) Because of its elasticity, Terylene is used in making conveyor belts.
(iv) It is also used in the manufacture of suits, shirts, skirts and other dress materials.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.2:

What do you understand by malleability? Give two examples.

Answer:

Malleability is the property of metals by which metals can be drawn into thin sheets. For example, the malleability property of gold and silver finds extensive use in jewellery making. Also, iron sheets are used in construction.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.3:

What are extinct species? Give two examples.

Answer:

The species which once existed, have been vanished from the surface of the earth, or no longer exists at any part of the earth are called extinct species. Dinosaurs and dodo birds are the examples of extinct species.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.4:

What do you understand by migration? Give examples.

Answer:

Birds and animals, sometimes travel large distances in groups from their natural habitats, during some seasons like winter to escape unfavourable conditions. This movement is called as migration. Siberian cranes migrate to India during winter seasons to escape the unfavourable winter conditions. Similarly, Bar-tailed Godwits migrate from Alaska to New Zealand covering more than 11000 km. 

Page No 262:

Question E.1.5:

What are multicellular organisms? Give one example.

Answer:

Organisms which are made up of more than one cell are called multicellular organisms. Humans are an example of multi-cellular organisms.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.6:

Write the role of insulin and adrenaline hormones in our body.

Answer:

The pancreas in human body produces insulin which regulates and maintains the sugar level in the blood of human body.
Adrenalin is secreted by the adrenal glands which maintains the correct salt balance in the blood.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.7:

What are weeds? Give two examples.

Answer:

Weeds are the unwanted plants that grow amidst of the crops, which grab essential nutrients that are required for the growth of the crops. Amaranthus and grass are some examples for weeds.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.8:

What is Rhizobium? How is it useful?

Answer:

Rhizobium is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that is present in the root nodules of the leguminous plants like soya or peas. It fixes the free nitrogen from the atmosphere into its compounds which later carried up by the plants and gets stored in plant tissues as essential nutrients. Rhizobium is very useful in balancing the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.9:

What do you understand by 'thermal coductivity'? What is a poor conductor of heat?

Answer:

Thermal conductivity is the ability of any object to conduct or allow heat to pass through it. It is one of the properties of metals which differentiates them from non metals. a substance that does not allow heat to pass through it are called insulators or poor conductors of heat. Except graphite, all non metals are generally poor conductor of heat, and exhibit low thermal conductivity.

Page No 262:

Question E.1.10:

What is deforestation? How is it caused?

Answer:

Deforestation refers to the continuous destruction of forests or loss of forest habitats which results due to natural or human activities. Some important reasons of deforestation are:
(i) Increasing demands for wood for various purposes such as construction of buildings, furniture making, paper making etc.
(ii) Rapid urbanization and growth in population has turned the forests to agricultural lands. Also forests are often cleared for the construction of roads, railway tracks and dams.
(iii) Sometimes overgrazing by cattle also contribute to the deforestation.

Page No 262:

Question E.2.1:

What is a botanical garden? How is it useful? How many botanical gardens are there world over?

Answer:

Botanical gardens are the parks are a place where several species of plants are grown in a demographic area. Botanical gardens are established to conserve rare and endangered species of plants. Apart from this, they also serve as seed banks and has a reserve of seeds of different plant species. All over the world, there are about 1600 botanical gardens.

Page No 262:

Question E.2.2:

Define cell, prokaryotic cell, and eukaryotic cell.

Answer:

Cell: Cells are the basic structural units of any living organism, which is referred to as building blocks of life.
Prokaryotic cell: A prokaryotic cell is a cell which has nucleus without nuclear membrane. This type of cells are found in bacteria and blue green algae which are called as prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic cell: An eukaryotic cell has a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane. All the organisms other than bacteria and blue green algae have eukaryotic cells and are called as eukaryotes.

Page No 262:

Question E.2.3:

What is the difference between drug and drug abuse?

Answer:

Drugs Drug abuse
Drugs are chemical substances that alter the state of mind or body of the user. Drug abuse is reliance on drugs for mental or physical stimulation.
Medical drugs can be useful if administered under proper supervision. Drug abuse is always harmful to health.
Drugs are the cause of drug abuse. Drug abuse is caused by habit forming, unchecked use of drugs.

Page No 262:

Question E.2.4:

What are endangered species? How are they different from vulnerable species?

Answer:

Endangered species are those biological species which are at a high risk of getting extinct or which are on the border of extinction.
Endangered species are different from Vulnerable species in the sense that vulnerable species are those which exist in low numbers and are about to extinct due to the exploitation of their habitats either by natural activities or by the activities of human beings and other animals.

Page No 262:

Question E.2.5:

What is mounting? List the different types of mounting.

Answer:

Mounting is the technique used to prepare and  place a specimen on a slide for viewing under a microscope. The different types of mounting are:

  1. Dry mounting: This is done for inanimate objects and no water is used.
  2. Wet mounting: Wet mounting is used to observe animate/living cells and/or small organisms. In wet mounting, the specimen is placed on a slide in a few drops of water and covered with a coverslip. If long term mounting is sought, then water maybe replaced by other liquids such as glycerine.

Page No 262:

Question F.1:

Describe the uses of petroleum and natural gas.

Answer:

The uses of natural gas are,
(i) It is used to generate electricity.
(ii)Used in the production of ammonia and hydrogen.
(iii) CNG which is an environment friendly gas compared to petrol or diesel is used in automobiles and as domestic fuel.
(iv) Also, it is used in the manufacture of plastic, glass, steel etc.

The uses of petroleum are
(i) Petroleum gas: The liquified form of this gas, called LPG is used for domestic purposes.
(ii) Petrol: This is one of the main sources of fuel to run automobiles. It is also used in dry cleaning and in some chemicals.
(iii) Kerosene: Used for domestic purposes such as to light the lamps and stoves. Also used as a jet fuel.
(iv) Diesel: This is one of the main sources of fuel to run heavy automobiles and generators.
(v) Fuel oil: Fuel oil is used in power stations and ships.
(vi) Lubricating oil: Used in the manufacture of lubricants, paraffin wax and asphalt.

Page No 262:

Question F.2:

How can you say 'recycling paper is one of the ways of conserving trees'. Describe in detail.

Answer:

Paper is manufactured from  cellulose fibre which is obtained from the wood pulp of the trees. If we start reusing and recycling of paper, then there will be a considerable amount of decrease in cutting the trees. It is believed that by recycling 54 kg of paper, we can save one tree. Also a ton of paper obtained by recycling can save 17 to 30 trees. Thus, it can be said that 'recycling paper is one of the ways of conserving trees'.

Page No 262:

Question F.3:

What is cell division? Explain how it is related to growth.

Answer:

The process in which, first the nucleus and then the whole cell, divides into two daughter cells, such that both the daughters are exact copy of each other, is called cell division.
When food is consumed, it is used by cells to grow in size. After reaching a certain size, the cell divides into two by the process of cell division. The increase in the number of cells in the body of an organism owing to cell division is responsible for the growth of an organism.

Page No 262:

Question F.4:

Write a short note on the human endocrine system.

Answer:

Human endocrine system secrets chemical substances called hormones. Hormones are responsible for the changes that occur in human body during the adolescence. The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands are released into the blood stream to reach a particular body part called target site. The target site responds to the hormones and stores the hormones released by endocrine glands. There are many endocrine glands in human body which secretes different hormones. All these hormones are responsible for bringing specified changes in the human body.

Page No 262:

Question F.5:

Explain the different groups of microorganisms.

Answer:

The organisms which can only be seen under microscope are called microorganisms. Microorganisms are mainly classified into 5 groups.
(i) Bacteria : Bacteria are said to be the oldest organisms that are found to exist on earth. They exist in four different shapes, rod shaped, spherical, curved and spiral. Examples include Lactobacillus and Streptococcus.
(ii) Protozoa : These are the single celled organisms which have animal like structure. Examples include Amoeba and Euglena.
(iii) Algae : These are a group of simple plants. Examples include Chlorella and Diatoms.
(iv) Fungi : These are a group of different organisms which do not contain chlorophyll, and feed on dead and decaying matter. Examples include yeasts and moulds.
(v) Virus : These are the smallest organisms which are visible only through electron microscope. They grow and multiply inside the cells of living organisms. Examples include Tobacco mosaic virus and Human Immuno-deficiency virus.



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