Science NCERT Grade 8, Chapter 12, Friction deals with the fundamentals of a type of contact force called friction. The chapter begins with posing a few basic questions from daily life which involves the presence of friction. The chapter, Friction is explained under five sections, each of which deals with different aspects related to friction. In the first section, the basics of friction are explained through activities and examples. In the second section, the factors which affect the friction are covered. Here, short information on spring balance and its application are also provided. The third section of the chapter, Friction forms the major part of the chapter and discusses the reasons as to why friction is a necessary evil. This topic is explained by citing instances from our daily life where friction is necessary in some cases and the same friction becomes evil in a few other cases. Subsequently, in the next section of the chapter, Friction, the different ways of minimizing friction are discussed, wherein, the term lubricant is emphasised. In the next section of the chapter,  the concept of rolling and sliding is taken into consideration followed by a discussion on fluid friction. Here, the focus is given on the term drag.

The chapter, Friction covers the following topics:

1. Force of Friction
2. Factors affecting Friction
3. Friction : A Necessary Evil
4. Increasing and Reducing Friction
5. Wheels Reduce Friction
6. Fluid Friction

#### Question 1:

Fill in the blanks.

(a) Friction opposes the ________ between the surfaces in contact with each other.

(b) Friction depends on the _________ of surfaces.

(c) Friction produces _________.

(d) Sprinkling of powder on the carrom board ________ friction.

(e) Sliding friction is ________ than the static friction.

(a) Friction opposes the __motion__ between the surfaces in contact with each other.

(b) Friction depends on the __nature__ of surfaces.

(c) Friction produces __heat__.

(d) Sprinkling of powder on the carrom board __reduces__ friction.

(e) Sliding friction is __less__ than the static friction.

#### Question 2:

Four children were asked to arrange forces due to rolling, static and sliding frictions in a decreasing order. Their arrangements are given below. Choose the correct arrangement.

(a) rolling, static, sliding

(b) rolling, sliding, static

(c) static, sliding, rolling

(d) sliding, static, rolling

(c) static, sliding, rolling

Friction comes into play when irregularities present in the surfaces of two objects in contact get interlocked with each other. Static friction comes into play when we try to move an object which is at rest. Sliding friction comes into play when an object slides over the surface of another object. In sliding friction, the time given for interlocking is very small. Hence, interlocking is not strong. Therefore, less force is required to overcome this interlocking. Because of this reason, sliding friction is less than static friction. Similarly, the area of contact in case of rolling friction is smallest as compared to static or sliding friction. This area of contact changes gradually because of rolling. Hence, rolling friction is lesser than both static and sliding friction. Thus, the correct sequence is—static, sliding, rolling.

#### Question 3:

Alida runs her toy car on dry marble floor, wet marble floor, newspaper and towel spread on the floor. The force of friction acting on the car on different surfaces in increasing order will be

(a) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel.

(b) newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet marble floor.

(c) towel, newspaper, dry marble floor, wet marble floor

(d) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, towel, newspaper

(a) wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel

Force of friction depends on the nature of surfaces in contact. The rougher the surface, the more is the friction between the surfaces in contact and vice-versa. Roughness present in the given surfaces can be arranged in an ascending order as wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel. Hence, the correct sequence of these surfaces when arranged according to the increase in the force of friction acting on the car is—wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel.

#### Question 4:

Suppose your writing desk is tilted a little. A book kept on it starts sliding down. Show the direction of frictional force acting on it.

When a book slides on the writing desk, a frictional force acts between the book and the surface of the desk. The direction of frictional force on the book is opposite to the direction of its motion and acts in upward direction, as shown in the following figure.

#### Question 5:

You spill a bucket of soapy water on a marble floor accidentally. Would it make it easier or more difficult for you to walk on the floor? Why?

We are able to walk because of the friction present between our feet and the ground. In order to walk, we push the ground in the backward direction with our feet. The force of friction pushes it in the forward direction and allows us to walk. The force of friction between the ground and feet decreases when there is soapy water spilled on the floor. Hence, it becomes difficult to walk on the soapy floor.

#### Question 6:

Explain why sportsmen use shoes with spikes.

Sportsmen use shoes with spikes because these shoes give them a better grip while running. This is because the force of friction between the shoes and the ground increases with the help of spikes.

#### Question 7:

Iqbal has to push a lighter box and Seema has to push a similar heavier box on the same floor. Who will have to apply a larger force and why?

Force of friction arises because of interlocking of irregularities on the two surfaces in contact. When a heavy object is placed on the floor, the interlocking of irregularities on the surfaces of box and floor become strong. This is because the two surfaces in contact are pressed harder. Hence, more force is required to overcome the interlocking. Thus, to push the heavier box, Seema has to apply a greater force than Iqbal.

#### Question 8:

Explain why sliding friction is less than static friction.

Friction comes into play when irregularities present in the surfaces of two objects in contact get interlocked with each other. In sliding, the time given for interlocking is very small. Hence, interlocking is not strong. Therefore, less force is required to overcome this interlocking. Because of this reason, sliding friction is less than static friction.

#### Question 9:

Give examples to show that friction is both a friend and a foe.

(i) We are able to walk because of friction.

(ii) Friction between the tip of the pen and a paper allows us to write.

(i) Tyres and soles of shoes wear out because of friction.

(ii) Friction between the different parts of machines produces heat. This can damage the machines.

#### Question 10:

Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.