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(i) The questions paper comprises two section, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
(ii) All questions are compulsory.
(iii) There is no choice in any of the questions.
(iv) All questions of Section−A and all questions of Section−B are to be attempted separately.
(v) Question numbers 1 to 3 in Section−A are one mark questions. These are to be answered in one word or one sentence.
(vi) Question numbers 4 to 6 Section−A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30 words each.
(vii) Question numbers 7 to 18 in Section−A are three marks questions. There are to be answered in about 50 words each.
(viii) Question numbers 19 to 24 in Section−A are five marks questions. These are to be answered in about 70 words each.
(ix) Question numbers 25 to 33 in Section−B are multiple choice questions based on practical skills. Each question is a one mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to you
(x) Question numbers 34 to 36 in Section B are two marks questions based on practical skills. These are to be answered in brief.
Question 1
• Q1

Write the name and formula of the 2nd member of homologous series having general formula CnH2n – 2.

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• Q4

List four specific characteristics of the images of the objects formed by convex mirrors.

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• Q7

Write the name and structural formula of the compound obtained when ethanol is heated at 443 K with excess of conc. H2SO4. Also write chemical equation for the reaction stating the role of conc. H2SO4 in it.

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• Q10

Write the number of periods the Modern Periodic Table has. State the changes in valency and metallic character of elements as we move from left to right in a period. Also state the changes, if any, in the valency and atomic size of elements as we move down a group.

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• Q2

What is speciation?

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• Q3

Why should biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes be discarded in two separate dustbins?

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• Q5

List two advantages associated with water harvesting at the community level.

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• Q6

Everyone of us can do something to reduce our personal consumption of various natural resources. List four such activities based on 3-R approach.

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• Q8

With the help of an example, explain the process of hydrogenation. Mention the essential conditions for the reaction and state the change in physical property with the formation of the product.

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• Q9

From the following elements :

4Be; 9F; 19K; 20Ca

(i) Select the element having one electron is the outermost shell.
(ii) two elements of the same group.
Write the formula of and mention the nature of the compound formed by the union of 19K and element X(2, 8, 7).

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• Q11

List any four methods of contraception used by humans. How does their use have a direct effect on the health and prosperity of a family.

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• Q12

(a) Name the following :

(i) Thread like non-reproductive structures present in Rhizopus.

(ii) 'Blobs' that develop at the tips of the non-reproductive threads in Rhizopus.

(b) Explain how these structures protect themselves and what is the function of the structures released from the 'blobs' in Rhizopus.

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• Q13

Name the parts A, B and C shown in the diagram and write their functions.

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• Q14

(i) Planaria, insects, octopus and vertebrates all have eyes. Can we group eyes of these animals together to establish a common evolutionary origin? Justify your answer.

(ii) "Birds have evolved from reptiles" State evidence to prove the statement.

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• Q15

List in tabular form, two distinguishing features between the acquired traits and the inherited traits with one example of each.

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• Q16

To construct a ray diagram we use two rays of light which are so chosen that it is easy to determine their directions after reflection from the mirror. Choose these two rays and state the path of these rays after reflection from a concave mirror. Use these two rays to find the nature and position of the image of an object placed at a distance of 15 cm from a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm.

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• Q17

With the help of a labelled diagram, explain why the sun appears reddish at the sun-rise and the sun-set.

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• Q18

After the examinations Rakesh with his friends went on a picnic to a nearby park. All friends carried cooked food packed in plastic bags or plastic cans. After eating the food some friends collected the leftover food and plastic bags etc and planned to dispose them off by burning. Rakesh immediately checked them and suggested to segregate the leftover food and peels of fruits from the plastic materials and respectively dispose them off separately in the green and red dustbins placed in the corner of the park.

(a) In your opinion, is burning plastic an ecofriendly method of waste disposal? Why? State the advantage of method suggested by Rakesh.

(b) How can we contribute in maintaining the parks and roads neat and clean?

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• Q19

"A convex lens can form a magnified erect as well as magnified inverted image of an object placed in from of it." Draw ray diagram to justify this statement stating the position of the object with respect to the lens in each case.
An object of height 4 cm is placed at a distance of 20 cm from a concave lens of focal length 10 cm. Use lens formula to determine the position of the image formed.

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• Q20

(a) State the laws of refraction of light. Explain the term absolute refractive index of a medium and write an expression to relate it with the speed of light in vacuum.

(b) The absolute refractive indices of two media 'A' and 'B' are 2.0 and 1.5 respectively. If the speed of light in medium 'B' is 2 × 108 m/s, calculate the speed of light in:
(i) vacuum,
(ii) medium 'A'.

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• Q21

A student is unable to see clearly the words written on the blackboard placed at a distance of approximately 4 m from him. Name the defect of vision the boy is suffering from. Explain the method of correcting this defect. Draw ray diagram for the:
(i) defect of vision and also
(ii) for its correction.

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• Q22

Write the functions of the following in human female reproductive system :

Ovary, oviduct, uterus

How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother's body ? Explain in brief.

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• Q23

How many pairs of chromosomes are present in human beings? Out of these how many are sex chromosomes ? How many types of sex chromosomes are found in human beings?

"The sex of a newborn child is a matter of chance and none of the parents may be considered responsible for it". Draw a flow chart showing determination of sex of a newborn to justify this statement.

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• Q24

Explain why carbon forms compounds mainly by covalent bond. Explain in brief two main reasons for carbon forming a large number of compounds. Why does carbon form strong bonds with most other elements ?

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• Q25

Four students A, B, C and D reported the following set of organs to be homologous. Who is correct ?

(A) Wings of a bat and a butterfly
(B) Wings of a pigeon and a bat
(C) Wings of a pigeon and a butterfly
(D) Forelimbs of cow, a duck and a lizard

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• Q26

A student identified the various parts of an embryo of a gram seed and listed them as given below :

(I) Testa
(II) Plumule
(IV) Cotyledon
(V) Tegmen

Out of these the actual parts of the embryo are :

(A) I, II, III
(B) II, III, IV
(C) III, IV, V
(D) II, IV, V

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• Q27

A student has obtained a point image of a distant object using the given convex lens. To find the focal length of the lens he should measure the distance between the :

(A) lens and the object only
(B) lens and the screen only
(C) object and the image only
(D) lens and the object and also between the object and the image

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• Q28

Study the following diagram and select the correct statement about the device 'X' :

(A) Device 'X' is a concave mirror of radius of curvature 12 cm
(B) Device 'X' is a concave mirror of focal length 6 cm
(C) Device 'X' is a concave mirror of focal length 12 cm
(D) Device 'X' is a convex of mirror of focal length 12 cm

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• Q29

After tracing the path of a ray of light through a glass prism a student marked the angle of incidence (∠i), angle of refraction (∠r) angle of emergence (∠e) and the angle of deviation (∠D) as shown in the diagram. The correctly marked angles are :

(A) ∠i and ∠r
(B) ∠i and ∠e
(C) ∠i, ∠e and ∠D
(D) ∠i, ∠r and ∠e

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• Q30

For students P, Q, R and S traced the path of a ray of light passing through a glass slab for an angle of incidence 40° and measured the angle of refraction. The values as measured them were 18°; 22°; 25° and 30° respectively. The student who has performed the experiment methodically is
(A) P
(B) Q
(C) R
(D) S

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• Q31

Hard water is not available for an experiment. Some salts are given below :

(I) Sodium chloride
(II) Sodium sulphate
(III) Calcium chloride
(IV) Calcium sulphate
(V) Potassium chloride
(VI) Magnesium sulphate

Select from the following group of these salts, each member of which may be dissolved in water to make it hard.

(A) I, II, V
(B) I, III, V
(C) III, IV, VI
(D) II, IV, VI

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• Q32

A student Prepared 20% sodium hydroxide solution in a beaker to study saponification reaction. Some observations related to this are given below :

(I) Sodium hydroxide solution turns red litmus blue
(II) Sodium hydroxide readily dissolves in water
(III) The beaker containing solution appears cold when touched from outside
(IV) The blue litmus paper turns red when dipped into the solution

The correct observations are :
(A) I, II and IV
(B) I, II and III
(C) only III and IV
(D) only I and II

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• Q33

A student adds 2 mL of acetic acid to a test tube containing 2 mL of distilled water. He then shakes the test tube well and leaves it to settle for some time. After about 5 minutes he observes that in the test tube there is :

(A) a clear transparent colourless solution
(B) a clear transparent pink solution
(C) a precipitate settling at the bottom of the test tube
(D) a layer of water the layer of acetic acid

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• Q34

To find the image-distance for varying object-distances in case of a convex lens, a student obtains on a screen a sharp image of a bright object placed very far from the lens. After that he gradually moves the object towards the lens and each time focuses its image of the screen.

(a) In which direction – towards or away from the lens, does he move the screen to focus the object?

(b) What happens to the size of image – does it increase or decrease?

(c) What happen when he moves the object very close to the lens?

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• Q35

List two observations which you make when you add a pinch of sodium hydrogen carbonate to acetic acid in a test tube. Write chemical equation for the reaction that occurs.

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• Q36

Name the type of asexual reproduction in which two individuals are formed from a single parent and the parental identity is lost. Draw the initial and the final stages of this type of reproduction. State the event with which this reproduction starts.

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