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Heat Transfer

  • Temperature is the measure of hotness or coldness of a body.
  • Heat is the form of energy transfer from one body to another due to their temperature difference.
  • Thermometers are used for measuring temperature.
  • Ice point and steam point are used as lower and upper fixed points for measurement.
  • Conversion of temperature from one scale to another:


  • Boyle’s law and Charles’ law are combined into a single relationship,

                          = constant         (Ideal gas law)

  • General form which can be applied to any quantity of gas:

                          [Ideal gas equation]

                     k − Universal gas constant (8.31 J mol−1K−1)

  • Absolute Temperature


  • The ab…

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