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Haloalkane and Haloarene Compounds

Classification and Nomenclature

Classification

  • Based on number of halogen atoms

  • Monohalogen

  • Dihalogen

  • Polyhalogen (tri-, tetra-, penta- etc.)

  • Examples of haloalkanes:

  • Examples of haloarenes:

  • Based on the hybridisation of C−atom of C−X bond of monohalocompounds

  • Compounds containing sp3 C−X bond (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

(i) Alkyl halides or haloalkanes (R−X) They form homologous series of general formula CnH2n+1X. They are further classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary.

(ii) Allylic halides Compounds containing halogen atom bonded to an allylic carbon

(iii) Benzylic halides Compounds containing halogen atom bonded to an sp3 hybridised carbon atom next to an aromatic ring

To test your knowledge of this concept, solve the following puzzle.

  • Compounds containing sp2 C−X bond (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

(i) Vinylic halides Compounds containing halogen atom bonded to a vinylic carbon

(ii) Aryl halides Compounds containing halogen atom bonded to an sp2 hybridised carbon atom of an aromatic ring

Nomenclature

  • For haloalkanes

  • Common name Name of alkyl group followed by name of the halide

  • IUPAC name Named as halo-substituted hydrocarbon in IUPAC

  • Examples:

Structure

Common Name

IUPAC Name

CH3CH2CH2CH2Br

n−Butyl bromide

1-Bromobutane

Isobutyl chloride

1-Chloro-2-methyl-propane

sec-butyl bromide

2-Br…

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