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Analytical Chemistry: Uses of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide

Analytical Chemistry

In the qualitative analysis of compounds, their colour helps in their identification. The table given below shows some examples of colourless and coloured ions.

Colourless Coloured
Cation Symbol Cation Symbol Colour
Ammonium NH4+ Cupric Cu2+ Blue
Sodium Na+ Ferrous Fe2+ Light green
Potassium K+ Ferric Fe3+ Yellowish-brown
Calcium Ca+ Nickel Ni2+ Green
Magnesium Mg2+ Chromium Cr3+ Green
Aluminium Al3+ Manganese Mn2+ Pink
Lead Pb2+      
Zinc Zn2+      
Anion Symbol Anion Symbol Colour
Chloride Cl Permanganate MnO4- Pink or Violet
Sulphate SO42- Dichromate Cr2O72- Orange
Carbonate CO32- Chromate CrO4- Yellow
Nitrate NO3-      
Bicarbonate HCO3-      
Sulphide S2      
Bromide Br      

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