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In molecular orbital why the bonding orbital have lower energy than the antibonding orbital.....xplain

Dear student!

The molecular orbitals are formed due to linear combination of atomic orbitals where atomic orbitals are considered as an electron wave and the combination occurs as:

If ψAand ψBare the amplitudes of two atomic orbitals then, they combine by two ways:

1. Constructive interference: when both waves add together as, Φ = ψA+ ψB

2. Destructive interference: when two waves are subtracted as,Φ = ψA- ψB

Now, as their magnitudes are the square of amplitudes so,Φ2= (ψA+ ψB)2= ψA2+ ψB2+ 2ψAψB

While. second equation is ,Φ'2= (ψA- ψB)2= ψA2+ ψB2- 2ψAψB

Φ2 ψA2+ ψB2

Φ'2A2+ ψB2

Here, we see that, two new molecular orbitals formed where, constructive interference gives bonding MO and destructive interference gives antibonding MO.

The electron density is increased in bonding MO as the electrons are maximum found in bonded region while the probability is minimum in antibonding MO and so here the electron density is minimum.

So, antibonding MO has repulsion in atomic orbitals and so it requires much more energy to stabilize them and they are of minimum stability and higher energy.

But in case of bonding MO, the there is already attraction between the atomic orbitals and so they have lower energy and hence maximum stability.

Posted byShubhangini Kumari

Plz xplain as there is minimum electron density in antibonding MO then why , antibonding MO has repulsion in atomic orbitals also why there is attraction in bonding MO as electron density is maximum

Plz xplain!!

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