Health and Hygiene
Health and Food
Consumption of healthy food is not the only factor required for good health. Healthy lifestyle and good habits are equally important. Some of the healthy habits we all must follow:
Bathing regularly to remove sweat and dirt
Washing hands before eating
Keeping finger nails trim and clean
Rinsing or brushing teeth after every meal
Washing eyes with cold, clean water
Wearing clean undergarments
Oral hygiene refers to the habits we all must follow to maintain healthy teeth.
An adult has 32 teeth and each teeth has three parts − crown, root, and neck.
Crown − Crown is the part of teeth that we see.
Root − Root is the part of teeth that is embedded in soft tissue called gum.
Neck − Neck is the part that lies between root and crown.
The top white portion of the teeth is known as enamel. Below the enamel lies dentine and below the dentine, soft pulp is present. Pulp has blood vessels and nerves.
In the absence of proper oral hygiene, tooth problems start arising.
Tooth decay is the main tooth problem, which is caused by microbes in the mouth.
Microbes form plaque on the teeth. Plaque is a thick film, which microbes form by mixing food particles with saliva.
Acids produced by microbes eat away our tooth enamel and form a cavity. This cavity becomes bigger and bigger with time and may reach the dentine and then pulp, if not treated, resulting in tooth loss.
That is why, elders advice you to not eat too much of chocolates. Plaque also pushes our teeth away from the gum, resulting in sore gums and bleeding.
We should take care of our teeth in the following manner:
Brushing the teeth after every meal
Using dental floss to remove particles stuck within two teeth
Eating a lot of raw vegetables that make our teeth strong
Avoiding sticky and sugary items (like chocolates)
We can take care of our hair in the following manner:
Brush or comb every day. It not only removes dust from the hair, but also improves blood circulation.
Washing the hairs to keep the scalp clean
If our scalp is not clean, then white flakes, called dandruff, start forming on it.
Eating nutritious, balanced diet and providing the nutrition to hair by oil massage
Preventing lice infestations, avoiding using comb and towels of others
Avoiding chemicals on hair such as hair dye and other colouring agents
Do you know that our eyes are naturally protected by four lines of protection? These are:
Tear − Helps to wash out the dirt which gets into our eyes
Eyelids − Sense an object coming close to eye
Eyelashes − Keep the dust and dirt away
We can add to the protection by following ways:
Wearing sunglasses to avoid bright glare of sunlight
Keeping sharp objects away from the eyes
Splashing the eyes with water in the morning
Avoiding gazing at television and computer for long by taking breaks every 20 minutes
Visiting a doctor, if you have any problem looking at the blackboard or book
Eating a healthy diet rich in vitamin A
Can you guess what will happen, if you take all steps to ensure good health at your level, but your surroundings are dirty and full of mosquitoes?
Yes, you will fall ill despite of ensuring cleanliness at your level.
Therefore, a clean community is equally important for good health.
Sanitation includes proper disposal of waste.
Some methods of waste deposal are:
Composting − In this, biodegradable waste is dumped into a deep pit. The waste in the pit is decomposed naturally by the action of microbes.
Dumping− In this, waste is dumped in low lying areas situated away from human settlement.
Sewage Treatment plants − The domestic sewage from the houses of our city goes into the sewage treatment plant. In this, solid waste present in the sewage is converted into manure.
Safe drinking water
Safe drinking water is of utmost importance for good health.
Water can be cleaned by the following methods:
Adding chlorine tablets to kill the germs. This process is called chlorination.
Adding alum crystals to the water, if it is muddy to make the mud particle settle down and obtain clean water on the upper layer
Sedimentation of water in earthen pots to settle down the suspended impurities
Boiling the water for at least fifteen minutes to get rid of germs
Adequate Exercise and Rest
Healthy food and maintaining hygiene are important factors to have good health. In addition, exercising regularly and having a sound sleep are also necessary for being healthy and fit.
How does exercise help?
Exercise makes our muscles strong and firm and improves the coordination of our nerves and muscles.
When we exercise, the heart pumps more blood and the lungs expand more to take up the oxygen. More oxygen is delivered to the muscle cells and food is oxidised at a faster rate.
In this way, heart, lungs, and muscles become more efficient and strong.
How does sleep help?
Sleep helps us to stay physically fit and mentally alert.
Without sleep, we become irritable and less efficient.
During sleep, heart beat and blood pressure slows down and hence heart, lungs, and muscles relax.…
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