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Health and hygiene

Diseases And Their Causes

Have you ever wondered that if the air contains so many microorganisms, then why do we not get infected by these microbes?

The body has many natural ways to prevent diseases. They defend the body against diseases and are called natural defence system of the body. There are various organs in our body which prevent the entry of disease causing microorganisms in our  body.

The body has its own defence mechanism through which it tries to prevent the entry of microorganisms. There are two lines of defence in the body. They are:

  • Non-specific defence mechanism
  • Specific defence mechanism

Non-Specific Defence Mechanism

These mechanisms do not allow the entry of microorganisms in the body. They are found in

  • Skin − It keeps away the microbes and prevents their entry in our body.

  • Mucus membrane in nose − It has cilia which trap the dust and microbes that may enter otherwise in our body as we breathe. It forms a sticky coating to trap the bacteria.

  • Tears − Tears wash away the bacteria out of our eyes.

  • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach − It kills the bacteria that enter the stomach along with food.

  • Blood cells − They destroy the germs present in the blood. For example: WBCs.

  • Hairs: Hairs in the nose.

The skin, mucous membranes, hair, etc. form the first line of defence while W.B.C forms the second line of defence.

 

 

Have you ever wondered that if the air contains so many microorganisms, then why do we not get infected by these microbes?

The body has many natural ways to prevent diseases. They defend the body against diseases and are called natural defence system of the body. There are various organs in our body which prevent the entry of disease causing microorganisms in our  body.

The body has its own defence mechanism through which it tries to prevent the entry of microorganisms. There are two lines of defence in the body. They are:

  • Non-specific defence mechanism
  • Specific defence mechanism

Non-Specific Defence Mechanism

These mechanisms do not allow the entry of microorganisms in the body. They are found in

  • Skin − It keeps away the microbes and prevents their entry in our body.

  • Mucus membrane in nose − It has cilia which trap the dust and microbes that may enter otherwise in our body as we breathe. It forms a sticky coating to trap the bacteria.

  • Tears − Tears wash away the bacteria out of our eyes.

  • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach − It kills the bacteria that enter the stomach along with food.

  • Blood cells − They destroy the germs present in the blood. For example: WBCs.

  • Hairs: Hairs in the nose.

The skin, mucous membranes, hair, etc. form the first line of defence while W.B.C forms the second line of defence.

 

 

Health and Diseases

Solved Examples

Medium

Example 1

Can you explain the difference between a healthy and a disease-free state of the human body?

Solution: 

The state of not having any disease is not the same as being healthy. Good health is the ability of an individual to realize his or her full potential. Consider, for example, an athlete who is tired after running about hundred metres. The athlete cannot be called a diseased person. However, he is not healthy either. Therefore, one can have poor health without having any identifiable disease.

Types of Health

Personal Health and Community Health 

Did You Know?

  • The word ‘hygiene’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Hygieia. In Greek mythology, Hygieia is the goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation.

Concept Builder

Personal hygiene

Here are certain healthy habits that we all must follow to maintain personal hygiene.

  • Bathing regularly to remove sweat and dirt
  • Washing hands before eating
  • Keeping our nails clean
  • Brushing teeth after every meal

Community or social hygiene 

Here are some of the steps that need to be taken to ensure effective social hygiene.

  • Making provisions for clean drinking water
  • Making provisions for family welfare education
  • Establishing healthcare services
  • Making provisions for proper waste disposal and sanitation facilities
  • Controlling diseases by providing vaccination, medical aid and medicines

Solved Examples

Medium

Example 2:

Why are social equality and harmony necessary for good personal health?

Solution

Social equality and harmony are important for good personal health. Social equality means equal access to education, hygienic environment, health facilities, etc. Social harmony refers to the peaceful interactions between the various individuals and groups constituting the society. Individual health prospers when conditions for social equality and harmony are present. This in turn adds to the overall health and well-being of the community.

Disease 

Disease refers to any disorder of structure or structural function in an organism. Such disorders produce specific signs and symptoms. Diseases are basically characterized by disturbance in normal body functions. On the basis of time duration, diseases can be classified as acute disease and chronic disease.
 


 

This is the reason why some people get diseases only for a short period and some people suffer from a particular disease throughout their lifetime.

Did You Know?

According to WHO, chronic diseases are responsible for 60% of all deaths worldwide.

Causes of Disease

There can be a number of causes for disease. These are broadly divided into immediate causes and contributory causes (as is shown in the figure).

Solved Examples

Medium

Example 3

A number of children consume contaminated food and water. Yet, only some get diarrhoea while the others remain disease-free. Why is this so?

Solution

This happens because of the difference in the levels of immunity . A healthy body or a well-nourished body is less likely to catch a disease when exposed to disease-causing agents. This is because it has a strong immune system . On the other hand, a poorly nourished body will easily become diseased due to its weak immune system.

Diseases and Their Causes

Health and Diseases

Solved Examples

Medium

Example 1

Can you explain the difference between a healthy and a disease-free state of the human body?

Solution: 

The state of not having any disease is not the same as being healthy. Good health is the ability of an individual to realize his or her full potential. Consider, for example, an athlete who is tired after running about hundred metres. The athlete cannot be called a diseased person. However, he is not healthy either. Therefore, one can have poor health without having any identifiable disease.

Types of Health

Personal Health and Community Health 

Did You Know?

Concept Builder

Personal hygiene

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