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Metals and non-metals

  • Minerals are the elements or compounds which occur naturally in the Earth’s crust. Some examples of minerals are common salt, gemstones, talc and plaster of paris.

  • The minerals from which metals can be extracted commercially are known as ores.


Elements on earth are found in different parts of earth and are found in different forms. Different parts of earth include lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
  • Elements or compounds, which occur naturally in the Earth’s crust, are known as minerals.
  • Extraction of metals

  • Low active metals

  • Middle active metals
  • Roasting – Heating of sulphide ore in excess air

  • Calcination – Heating of carbonate ores in limited air

  • Thermite reaction

  • Electrolytic Reduction


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