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Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones – 

Aldehydes: 

Often called by their common names instead of IUPAC names.

                     

Ketones:

Derived by naming two alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the carbonyl group

Alkyl phenyl ketones are usually named by adding the acyl group as prefix to phenone.

         

IUPAC Nomenclature 

(i) For open-chain aliphatic aldehydes and ketones, IUPAC names are derived from the names of the corresponding alkanes by replacing the ending ‘−e’ with ‘−al’ and ‘−one’ respectively.

(ii) In the case of aldehydes, the longest chain is numbered starting from the carbon of the aldehydic group.

(iii) In the case of ketones, the numbering begins from the end nearer to the carbonyl group.

(iv) Substituents are prefixed in the alphabetical order along with the numerals indicating their positions in the carbon chain.

(v) Same rule is appliā€¦

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