Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Carbonyl Group – Nomenclature and Structure
In the IUPAC system, aliphatic carboxylic acids are named as follows:
By replacing the ending ‘− e’ in the name of the corresponding alkane with ‘− oic acid’
Carboxylic carbon is numbered one.
If more than one carboxyl groups are present, then the ending ‘− e’ of the alkane is retained.
The number of carboxyl groups is indicated by adding prefix, d, tri, etc. to the term ‘oic’.
The given table lists the common and IUPAC names and structures of some carboxylic acids.
Names and Structures of Some Carboxylic Acids
Propane-1, 2, 3-
Structure of Carboxyl Group
Carboxyl carbon is less electrophilic than carbonyl carbon because of resonance.
Bonds to the carboxyl carbon lie in one plane and are separated by about 120°.
Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acid
From primary alcohols
From primary aldehydes
Oxidising agents − HNO3, KMnO4, K2Cr2O7
Mild oxidising agents − Tollen’s reagent and Fehling’s reagent
From alkyl benzenes
1° and 2° alkyl benzene are oxidised in this manner.
Tertiary group is not affected.
From nitriles and amides
From Grignard reagents
From acyl halides
From acyl anhydrides
Ester Carboxylic acid
Common Names of Aldehydes
Often called by their common names instead of IUPAC names
Derived from the common names of the carboxylic acids by replacing the ending ‘−ic’ of the acid with aldehyde
Location of the substituent in the carbon chain is indicated by the Greek letters α, β, γ, δ, et…
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