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Syllabus

define activity of a radioactive material and write its si units draw graph for activity vs time ?

characteristic feature of nuclear force which distinguish it from columb force ?

In an atom, two electrons moves around the nucleus in circular orbit of radius R and

What is proton-neuron hypothesis of nuclear composition?

Two nuclei have mass numbers in the ratio 1:2. What is the ratio of their nuclear densities?

show that density of nucleons is independent to mass number.

natural radioactive nuclei are nuclei of high mass number. why?

1amu = 931 Mev .......how do we prove this?

1)why is the binding energy constant btw 30 qnd 170?

2)what is meant by saturation property of nuclear forces?

3)explain how the potential energy vs radius graph is drawn like this

Light with an energy flux of 18W/cm

^{2}falls on a non-reflecting surface at normal incidence. If the surface has an area of 20cm^{2}, find the average force exerted on the surface during a 30 min time span.Two nuclei have mass numbers in the ratio 1:8. what is the ratio of their nuclear radii?

CALCULATE THE BINDING ENERGY OF AN ALPHA PARTICLE

The mass of 2 protons = 2 x 1.007825 amu

The mass of 2 neutrons = 2 x 1.008665 amu

Total Mass = 4.032981 amu

The actual mass, as measured by a mass spectrometer, is 4.002800 amu.

Delta m = 4.032981-4.002800 = 0.030180

NOW,

Binding energy = 0.030180 * 931 = 28.097 Which is the answer,,,,

BUT,

The Formua to find B.E is delta m . c^2

so the ans should be like this ,

= 0.030180 * (3*10^8)^2.... am I right ?

compare the radii of two nuclei with mass numbers 1 and 27 respectively

A nucleus of mass 220 amu in free state decays to emit an alpha particle. Kinetic energy of the alpha particle emitted is 5.4 MeV. The recoil energy of the daughter nucleus is

Prove that the instantaneous rate of change of activity of a radio-active substance is inversely proportional to the square of its half life.

(dps) after 20 hours. After next 10 hours its activity reduces to 5,000 dps.

Find out its half life and initial activity.

Q.13. The mass of nucleus of ${}_{17}C{l}^{35}$is 34.9800 a.m.u. Calculate the average energy required to extract a nucleon from this nucleus. Use 1 a.m.u. = 931.5 MeV. Given mass of proton = 1.007825 u, and mass of neutron = 1.008665 u.

[Ans. 802 Mev]Please explain Davisson aand Germer experiment ... And state it's importance.

the radioactive nuclei X and Y initially contain equal number of atoms. Their half lives are 1 hour and 2 hour respectively. Compare he rate of their disintegration after two hours.

^{238}_{92}U undergoing alpha decay is 4.5 * 10^{9}years. What is the activity of 1g sample of^{238}_{92}U ?0.01%

10%

1%

0.1%

Explain the working of nuclear reactor?

^{16}_{8}O in MeV/c^{2}.Please explain "The density of nuclear matter is independent of size of nucleus but the mass density of the atom does not follow this rule".

Q (a) Draw the energy level diagram showing the emission of beta particles followed by gamma rays by a Co ( Z=27 A=60 ) nucleus.

(b) Plot the distribution of kinetic energy of beta particles and state why the energy spectrum is continuous.

Part (b) is my doubt.

A radioactive isotope has a half life of 5 years. How long will it take the activity to reduce to 3.125%?

^{-27}kg. calculate the mass of 1 atom of C^{12}in kg.Explain the concept of de Broglie wave (matter wave).....

Q.34. The mass number of nucleus is 216. The size of such a nucleus is $\left({R}_{0}=1.2\times {10}^{-15}cm\right)$

1) 7.20$\times {10}^{-13}cm$

2) 1.47$\times {10}^{-13}cm$

3) 14.7$\times {10}^{-13}cm$

4) 0.72$\times {10}^{-13}cm$

From the relation

R=R_{0}A^{1}/^{3}, whereR_{0}is a constant andAis the mass number of a nucleus, show that the nuclear matter density is nearly constant (i.e. independent ofA)._{92}Y^{235 }initially at rest decays by emitting alpha particle as_{92}Y^{238 }---->_{90}X^{231 }+_{2}He^{4 }+ energyIt is given that the binding energies per nucleon of parent and daughter nuclei are 7.8MeV 7.835 MeV respectively and of alpha particle is 7.07 MeV/nucleon .Assuming daughter nuceli is formed in unexcited state and negletcing its share in energy of reaction, calculate speed of emitted alpha particle. Mass of alpha particle = 6.68 x 10

^{-27 }kg.A radioactive sample at any instant has its disintegration rate 5000/min. After 5 mins the rate is 1250/min. Find the decay constant in per minute.1 why heavy stable nuclei must contain more neutrons than protons? 2 All protons in an atom remain packed in a small nucleus inspite of the electrostatic repulsive force among them,explain how? 3 Natural radioactive elements have nuclei of high mass number,why? 4 For greater stability, a nucleus should have greater value of binding energy per nucleon. why? 5 In a heavy nuclei the number of neutrons is higher than number of protons.why? 6 why is mass of nucleus less than sum of masses of nucleons present in it ? can it be more ? if not ,why? 7 what is mass defect ? how is it releated to stability of nucleus? 8 what is binding energy ? explain the significance of binding energy per nucleon in the stability of nucleus? 9 what are the constituent of nucleus ? explain four properties of nucleus?

wats the difference b/w nucleus and nucleon

Two nuclei have mass numbers in the ratio 8:125. What is the ratio of their nuclear radii?

(a) Plot the graph of R versus t and calculate half life from the graph.

(b) Plot the graph of In (R/R

_{0}) versus t and obtain the value of half life from the graph.how much energy is required to break c12 nucleus into 3 alpha particles? the atomic mass of c12 is 12amu and mass of an alpha particle is 4.002603a.m.u.

A radioactive isotope has a half life T years. After how much time its ativity reduced to 6.25% of its original activity?

the half-life of a radioactive substance is 30 days. what time will it take for(3/4)th of its original mass to disintegrate?

The sequence of stepwise decays of a radioactive nucleus is

D--D1--D2---D3If the nucleon number and atomic number for D2 are 176 and 71 respectively, what are thecorresponding values of D and D3? Justify your answer in each case.Q.48. Ratio of initial active nuclei in two different samples is 2 : 3. Their half lives are one hour and two hours respectively. Ratio of active nuclei at the end of 6 hours will be:-

(1) 1 : 1

(2) 1 : 12

(3) 4 : 3

(4) 3 : 4

why is the energy distribution of beta rays continuous?

Give the nuclear reaction for electron capture of Xe (A = 120 and Z = 54).

the mass of nucleus in its ground state is always less than the total mass of it's constituents-neutrons and protons.Explain

Explain how radioactive nuclei can emit beta particles even though atomic nuclei do not contain these particles. hence xplain why the mass no. of a radioactive nuclie does not change during beta decay?

A heavy nucleus X of mass no. 240 and binding energy per nucleon is 7.6 Mev is split into Y and Z of mass no. 110 and 130. the binding energy of nucleons in Y & Z is 8.5 Mev per nucleon. calculate the energy released per fission in Mev.

Q.37. Calculate the Binding energy and binding energy per nucleon of an oxygen nucleus (${}_{8}{}^{16}O$) using the following Data (MeV) :

Mass of proton = 1.007825 u

Mass of neutron = 1.008665 u

Mass of oxygen nucleus = 15.995 u.

4 nuclei of an element fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. if the process is accompanied by release of energy, which of the two- the parent or the daughter nucleus would have higher binding energy per nucleon?

explain the expression for nuclear binding energy when mass defect is measured in amu

why control rods are made of cadmium.

Hello! my question is -

What is the law of radioactive decay ?

and

derive the relationship betwen half life period and the disintegration constant.

(1) 3 × 10

^{8}K (2) 3 × 10^{9}K (3) 2 × 10^{8}K (4) 3 × 10^{7}KOne

Two

Three

Four

Tritium has a half life of 12.5 years against beta decay .What fraction of sample of pure tritium will remain undecayed after 25 years??

what does exactly make heavy nuclei unstable?

why proton to neutron decay is possible only inside nucleus?

a. Write the basic nuclear process involved in the emission of ${\beta}^{+}$ in a symbolic form, by a radioactive nuclear.

b. in the reactions given below:

$1.{}_{6}{}^{11}C\to {}_{y}{}^{z}B+x+y\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}2.{}_{6}{}^{12}C\to {}_{6}{}^{12}C\to Ne+{}_{b}{}^{c}He$

Find the values of x, y, and z and a, b and c.

Po

84

originally at rest emit alpha particle with speed v .What is the recoil speed of the daughter nucleus?

WHEN FOUR HYDROGEN NUCLEI COMBINE TO FORM A HELIUM NUCLEUS, ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY IN MeV RELEASED IN THIS PROCESS OF FUSION.

MASS OF PROTON: 1.007825u

MASS OF HELIUM NUCLEUS: 4.002603u

1u= 931 MeV/c

^{2}Explain the graph of packing fraction versus mass number.Explain beta-minus decay and beta-plus decay ?

a. ${}_{8}O^{19}\to {}_{9}F^{19}+{}_{-1}e^{0}+\overline{)\overline{)v}}$

Given

m (${}_{8}O^{19}$) = 19.003576 a.m.u.

m (${}_{9}F^{19}$) = 18.998403 a.m.u.

m (${e}^{0}$) = 0.000549 a.m.u.

features of binding energy curve?

Find the half life of U238 if 1g of it emits 1.24.10^14 alpha particles per second