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  • In a pictograph, pictures of objects are used for representing data. Tally marks cannot be used for representing huge numbers. However, these numbers can be represented with the help of pictographs.
  • Data can also be represented by using bar diagram or bar graph. In a bar graph, bars of uniform width are drawn horizontally or vertically. These bars are placed at equal distance from each other. The length of each bar gives the required information.
  • The data in an unorganised form is called raw data. In order to draw meaningful inferences from a data, we need to organise the data systematically.

We can organise a data in the following ways:

    • Frequency distribution table
    • Histogram
    • Pie chart


  • Construction of grouped frequency distribution table:

There are two ways to group the data to make frequency distribution table. These are as follows:

Inclusive method (Discontinuous form):

The classes can be defined in inclusive method as 1 - 10, 11 - 20, 21 - 30 and 31 - 40. Here, both limits are inclusive in each class.  

Exclusive method (Continuous form):

In exclusive method, we take the class intervals as 0 – 10, 10 – 20, 20 – 30. The observ…

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