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As winter sets in, many birds leave their nests and fly back long distances to warmer places. There, it is easier
for them to find enough food and breeding grounds. In spring they fly back to their homes. This amazing
annual journey is called migration. Some mammals and fish also migrate. Most species of penguins swim to
migrate.
Long ago people did not know where birds went in winter. Some believed that they flew up to some other
planet. Others thought that they hid in the bottom of the wells.
The Arctic Tern is the greatest traveller of all. Each year it flies from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back
again. This to and fro journey is almost 40,000 kilometres. Scientists have still not been able to find out how
these birds travel so accurately every year. They probably use the Sun and the stars as guides, or may be the
rivers and the mountains.
While the Arc Tern flies the longest distance, the Bar Headed Geese fly the greatest heights, close to eight
kilometres. Huge flocks of geese fly over the Himalayas, the highest mountains in the world. They fly almost
as high as a jet plane. Most of the other migratory birds fly below 100 metres.
The migratory birds that visit our country include the pelicans, the beautiful Brahminy Duck, the colourful
Mallards, the Pintails and the Little Stints. Most of these guests migrate from Central Asia and Europe. Birds
such as Spoonbills, Pied Cuckoos and Painted Stork migrate within our country.
The journey of the migratory birds is not very safe. There are many threats. In addition to bad weather and
exhaustion, there is constant threat by human activities. Deforestation, effluents from factories and harmful
gases are great obstacles in this great endeavour.
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, answer the questions given below:
(i)What do you understand by the term ?migration??
a) a long and tiring journey
b) travelling away from home
c) travelling to warmer places during winter
d) journey undertaken for adventures and thrill
(ii) What did the people think about the migratory birds long ago?
a) travelled under the spell of a magician
b) were hunted down by hunters and predators
c) loved to change their nests to experience adventure
d) travelled to other planets or hid in the bottom of the wells
(iii) How do the migratory birds find their way?
1. by pheromones secreted by other birds
2. they have a very sharp eyesight
3. following the Sun and the stars
4. use rivers as mountains and guides
a) only 1
b) only 3
c) Both 1& 4
d) Both 3&4

(iv) According to the passage, which human activities disturb the migratory birds?
a) rapidly increasing plastic pollution
b) heaps of garbage littered here and there
c) cutting of trees and poisonous gases from industries
d) radiation from mobile towers
(v) Choose the word from the passage which mean the same as ?exhaustion?.
a) fatigue
b) depression
c) expression
d) laziness
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