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Page No 133:

Question 1:

Match the pairs.

Group 'A' Group 'B'
a. C2H6 1. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
b. C2H2 2. Molecular formula of an alcohol
c. CH4O 3. Saturated hydrocarbon
d. C3H6 4. Triple bond

Answer:

 

Group 'A' Group 'B'
a. C2H6 1. Saturated hydrocarbon
b. C2H2 2. Triple bond
c. CH4O 3. Molecular formula of an alcohol
d. C3H6 4. Unsaturated hydrocarbon 

Page No 133:

Question 2:

Draw an electron dot structure of the following molecules. (Without showing the circles)
a. Methane     b. Ethene
c. Methanol    d. Water

Answer:


a. Methane  
  


b. Ethene 



c. Methanol 



d. Water

Page No 133:

Question 3:

Draw all possile structural formulae of compounds from their molecular formula given below.
a. C3H8   b. C4H10   c. C3H4

Answer:


a. C3H8 
Image result for structure of c3h8Propane


b. C4H10 



c. C3H4
Propyne

Page No 133:

Question 4:

Explain the following terms with example.
a. Structural isomerism
b. Covalent bond
c. Hetero atom in a carbon compound
d. Functional group
e. Alkane
f. Unsaturated hydrocarbon
g. Homopolumer
h. Monomer
i. Reduction
j. Oxydant

Answer:


a. Structural isomerism:
Structural isomerism or constitutional isomerism is a form of isomerism in which molecules have same molecular formula but different arrangement of the atoms in space. Different arrangement may be in bonding patterns and atomic organization.
For example: CH3OCH3 and CH3CH2OH are structural isomers.

b. Covalent bond
Covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of an electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs. It is also known as molecular bond. For example: Molecules that have covalent linkages are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, water, and ammonia (H2, N2, Cl2, H2O, NH3).

Structural formula.
A single line indicates a single bond between two atoms (i.e. involving one electron pair), double lines (=) indicate a double bond between two atoms (i.e. involving two electron pairs), and triple lines (≡) represent a triple bond (C≡O).


c. Hetero atom in a carbon compound: It is a compound formed by replacement of carbon and hydrogen by heteroatom in a compound. A heteroatom is any atom other than carbon or hydrogen. Typical heteroatoms are nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
For example: Oxygen is hetero atom in ethanol ( C2H5-O-H)
Similarly, Nitrogen is the hetero atom in Ethyl amine ( CH3-CH2- NH2)


d. Functional group: The functional group is defined as an atom or group of atoms joined in a specific manner, which gives the chemical properties of the organic compound and they are the centers for chemical reactivity. Compounds having a similar functional group have undergoes similar reactions.
for example:
1. Alkane: The functional group presence in the alkane is -C-C-. The IUPAC group suffix of an alkane is –ane.
Example: Methane CH4
2. Alkene: The functional group presence in the alkene is -C=C- (double bond). The IUPAC group suffix of an alkene is –ene.
Example: butane
3. Alkynes: The functional group presence in the alkyne is -C ≡ C- (triple bond). The IUPAC group suffix of an alkyne is –yne.

4. Arenes: They contain a benzene ring as the functional group.
Example: Benzene
5. Halides: The functional group presence in halides is X(halogen).
Example: Chloromethane
6. Alcohols: The functional group, which is present in alcohol, is -OH. The IUPAC group suffix of alcohol is –ol.
Example: Ethanol

7. Aldehydes: The functional group, which is present in an aldehyde, is -CHO. The IUPAC group suffix of an aldehyde is –al.
Example: Formaldehyde

8. Ketones: The functional group, which is present in a ketone is >C=O. The IUPAC group suffix of a ketone is –one.
Example: Acetone

9. Carboxylic acid: The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH. The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid.
Example: Acetic acid

10. Amine: The functional groups present in an amine are -NH2>NH>N- The IUPAC group prefix of an amine is amino– or the suffix is –amine.
Example: Methylamine

11. Ester: The functional group present in an ester is -COOR The IUPAC group suffix of an ester is –ate.
Example: Ethyl acetate
.


e. Alkane: Alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon. It is formed, when there is sharing of one electron pair between carbon atoms in a compound. The general formula for alkane is CNH2N+2, where N is equal to no of carbon atom in a compound.
For example:
C2H6 Ethane
C3H8 propane
C4H10 butane
C5H12 pentane
C6H14 hexane
C7H16 heptane
C8H18 octane
C9H20 nonane
C10H22 decane
C11H24 undecane


f. Unsaturated hydrocarbon: An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon containing at least one double or triple bond.
For example:
Alkenes - These unsaturated hydrocarbons are molecules that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. With the chemical formula consisting of CnH2n. The simplest alkene is ethylene.
Alkynes - These unsaturated hydrocarbons are molecules that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond.  Acetylenes are common examples of alkynes.

g. Homopolymer: A homopolymer is a polymer formed from same type of monomer units.
For examples: Polyvinylchloride (PVC), Polyethylene, Polystyrene are homopolymer.

h. Monomer: A monomer is a molecule that forms the basic unit for polymers. They may be considered as building blocks from which proteins are made. Monomers may bind to other monomer unit to form a repeating chain molecule. Monomers may be either natural or synthetic in origin.
For example: Ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene etc.

i. Reduction:
The addition of hydrogen to a substance is called reduction.
The removal of oxygen from a substance is called reduction.
For example:
2Ag2O → 4 Ag + O2
In a reaction, silver oxide is changing to silver. That is, oxygen is being removed from silver oxide. Removal of oxygen from substance is called reduction, so silver oxide undergoes reduction.
NiO + H2 → Ni + H2O
In a reaction, Nickle oxide is changing to nickle. That is, oxygen is being removed from nickle oxide. Removal of oxygen from substance is called reduction, so nickle oxide undergoes reduction.In a reaction, hydrogen is changing to H2O. That is,oxygen is being added to hydrogen. Addition of oxygen to a substance is called oxidation, so hydrogen undergoes oxidation.

j. Oxidant:
The substance which gives oxygen for oxidation is called an oxidising agent or oxidant.
The substance which removes hydrogen is called an oxidising agent or oxidant.
For example:
CuO + H2 → Cu +  H2O
Oxidising agent=CuO
Reducing agent= H2
Substance oxidised=H2
Substance reduced=CuO
 



Page No 134:

Question 5:

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

a. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
b. CH3-CHOH-CH3
c. CH3-CH2-COOH
d. CH3-CH2-NH2
e. CH3-CHO f. CH3-CO-CH2-CH3

Answer:


a. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 = Butane

b. CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 = Propan-2-ol

c. CH3-CH2-COOH = Propanoic acid

d. CH3-CH2-NH2 = Ethan-1-amine

e. CH3-CHO = Ethanal

f. CH3-CO-CH2-CH3 = Butanone

Page No 134:

Question 6:

Identify the type of the following reaction of carbon compounds.
a. CH3 -CH2 -CH2-OH → CH3 -CH2 -COOH
b. CH3 -CH2 -CH3 → 3CO2 + 4H2O
c. CH3 -CH = CH -CH3 + Br2 → CH3 -CHBr - CHBr -CH3
d. CH3 -CH3 + Cl2 → CH3 -CH2 -Cl + HCl
e. CH3 -CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -OH → CH3 -CH2 -CH=CH2 + H2O
f. CH3 -CH2 -COOH + NaOH → CH3 -CH2 -COO - Na+ + H2O
g. CH3 -COOH + CH3 -OH → CH3 -COO- CH3 + H2O

Answer:


a. CH3 -CH2 -CH2-OH → CH3 -CH2 -COOH = Oxidation reaction(acidic KMnO4)
b. CH3 -CH2 -CH3 → 3CO2 + 4H2O = Combusion reaction
c. CH3 -CH = CH -CH3 + Br2 → CH3 -CHBr - CHBr -CH3 = Addition reaction
d. CH3 -CH3 + Cl2 → CH3 -CH2 -Cl + HCl = Substitution reaction
e. CH3 -CH2 -CH2 -CH2 -OH → CH3 -CH2 -CH=CH2 + H2O = Dehydration reaction
f. CH3 -CH2 -COOH + NaOH → CH3 -CH2 -COO - Na+ + H2O = Neutralization reaction(reaction with base)
g. CH3 -COOH + CH3 -OH → CH3 -COO- CH3 + H2O = Esterification reaction

Page No 134:

Question 7:

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

a. pent-2-one b. 2-chlorobutane
c. propan- 2 ol d. methanal
e. butanoic acid f. 1-bromopropane
g. ethanamine h. butanone

Answer:


a. Pent-2-one


b. 2-chlorobutane


c. Propan- 2 ol


d. Methanal

e. Butanoic acid

Image result for pent-2-one

f. 1-bromopropane


g. Ethanamine

Image result for butanone

h. Butanone





 

Page No 134:

Question 8:

Write answers as directed.
a. What causes the existance of very large number of carbon compound ?
b. Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types. Write these names giving one example each.
c. Give any four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it. Write name and structural formula of one example each.
d. Give names of three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms. Write name and structural formula of one example each.
e. Give names of three natural polymers. Write the place of their occurance and names of monomers from which they are formed.
f. What is meant by vinegar and gashol? What are their uses ?
g. What is a catalyst ? Write any one reaction which is brought about by use of catalyst ?

Answer:


a. Organic compounds mean carbon compounds. Carbon is unique element in the periodic table. It has 4 valence electrons. That means each individual carbon atom can bind to 4 other atoms of almost any variety and each of those 4 can bind to 4 others atoms. This leads to formation of organic compounds having incredible variety and complexity - short chains, long chains, ring structures, branched structures and so on.This self linking property of carbon atom is called catenation, which leads to existance of very large number of carbon compound.


b. Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types:

Saturated hydrocarbon Example Structure
1) Straight chain hydrocarbons Propane C3H8 Image result for Propane C3H8 STRUCTURE
2)Branched chain hydrocarbon isobutane C4H10 Image result for isobutane C4H10 STRUCTURE
3)Cyclic hydrocarbon Cyclohexane C6H12 Image result for Cyclohexane  STRUCTURE


c. Four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it are as follows:
1. Alcohols: The functional group, which is present in alcohol, is -OH. The IUPAC group suffix of alcohol is –ol.
Example: Ethanol

2. Aldehydes: The functional group, which is present in an aldehyde, is -CHO. The IUPAC group suffix of an aldehyde is –al.
Example: Formaldehyde

3. Ketones: The functional group, which is present in a ketone is >C=O. The IUPAC group suffix of a ketone is –one.
Example: Acetone

4. Carboxylic acid: The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH. The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid.
Example: Acetic acid


d. Three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms are as follows:
Carboxylic acid: The functional group present in a carboxylic acid is -COOH. The IUPAC group suffix of a carboxylic acid is –oic acid. Here, heteroatom is oxygen.
Example: Acetic acid

Amine: The functional groups present in an amine are -NH2>NH>N- The IUPAC group prefix of an amine is amino– or the suffix is –amine. Here, heteroatom is nitrogen.
Example: Methylamine

Halides: The functional group presence in halides is X(halogen= F,Cl,Br,I).Here, heteroatom is chloride.
Example: Chloromethane

e.

Natural polymers     Monomer unit Occurance
1.Polysaccaride   Glucose   Starch
2.Cellulose       Glucose           Wood (cell wall of plant cells)
3.Proteins         alpha aminoacids    Muscles, Hairs, Skin, Egg
4.D.N.A        Nucleotide(base-deoxyribose-phosphate)  Chromosomes of animals
5.R.N.A       Nucleotide(base-ribose-phosphate )    Chromosomes of plants
6.Rubber     Isoprene(CH2=C(CH3)-CH=CH2 )       Latex of rubber tree


f. Vinegar is the type of liquid which consist of acetic acid ( Ethanoic acid ). It is basically produce by the process of fermentation of ethanol through ethanoic acid in the presence of bacteria .
Reaction involved in the formation of Vinegar:
CH₃CH₂OH + O₂ → CH₃COOH + H₂O
Fermentation is the process of converting sugar into alcohol. But if the cork of the bottle open for sometimes then there is second type of fermentation happened.  In this process, alcohol is changes into acetic acid, so the main compound which formed is vinegar.
Uses of Vinegar are:
It is used in the preparation of the food .
It is used in pickling.
It is used as folk medicine material.
It is used as a household cleaning agent
Gasohol is a mixture of 90% gasoline and 10% of anhydrous Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol). It is commonly known as the alternative fuel or a motor fuel.
Benefits of gasohol are :-
It is cheaper.
It is eco-friendly.
It has higher performance.
It is used as cleaner to the environment.
It doesn't freeze in typical conditions.
Uses of gasohol are:
It is used in a fuel or petroleum Industry
It is used in a automobiles industry
It is used as common gasoline or hydrous around the world.
It is used as a flexible fuel vehicle, because it do not freeze in typical conditions.

g. Catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.

For example:
E.g. Name of process Equations (in words or formulae) Catalyst
1 Fermentation of glucose to form ethanol Glucose Ethanol + Carbon dioxide Specific enzymes (in yeast)
2 Hydration of ethene to form ethanol Ethene + Water (Steam) Heat Ethanol
 
Phosphoric Acid
3 Hydrogenation of unsaturated fats
(to harden oils in the manufacture of margarine)
Hydrogen + Unsaturated Fats Saturated Fats

 
Nickel (Ni)
4 Haber's process Nitrogen +Hydrogen  Ammonia Iron

















 



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