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Kingdom Plantae

Introduction to Plant Classification and Division Algae

Taxonomical Studies

  • Study of various species of plants and animals and is useful in agriculture, forestry, industry, etc.

  • Useful in knowing about our bio-resources and their diversity

  • Require correct classification and identification of organisms

  • Identification requires intensive laboratory and field studies.

  • Prime requisite - collection of plant and animal specimens

    • Used for classification

    • Information gathered is stored along with specimens.

  • Biologists have established certain procedures and techniques (called taxonomical aids) to store and preserve information as well as specimens.

Taxonomical Aids


  • Storehouse of plant specimens

  • Specimens dried, pressed, and preserved on sheets

  • These sheets are arranged according to the accepted system of classification.

  • Herbarium sheet contains information about date and place of collection, collector’s name, local and botanical names.

  • Also provides quick referral systems in taxonomical studies

Botanical Gardens

  • Specialised gardens for collecting living plants

  • Grown for identification purposes

  • Each plant labelled, indicating scientific name and family it belongs to
    Example − Botanical garden at Kew (England), Indian Botanical garden at Howrah (India), National Botanical Research Institute at Lucknow (India)


  • Collection of preserved plant and animal specimens

  • Useful for study and reference

  • Specimens are preserved in containers or jars in preservative solutions. Specimens can also be preserved dry.

  • Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing, and pinning.
    Large animals − stuffed and preserved

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  • Also have collection of skeletons of animals

Zoological parks

  • Protected environments for wild animals

  • Provide condition similar to natural habitat

  • Enable us to learn about their food habits and behaviour


  • Keys are analytical in nature; hence used in identification of plants and animals based on contrasting characters in a pair called couplet.

  • Out of two proposed characters, only one which is relevant is accepted while the other is rejected.

  • Each statement in a key is called a lead.

  • Unique for each category such as family, genus, order, etc.

Other Taxonomical Aids

  • Flora, manuals, monographs, and catalogues are other taxonomical…

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