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Morphology of Flowering Plants

  • Morphology
    • It is the branch of biology which deals with the study of external structures of plants and animals.
    • A plant consists of a root system (underground part) and a shoot system (above the ground parts).
    • Roots are the parts of the root system; and stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits are parts of the shoot system.
  • Roots
    • It helps in anchoring plant and absorbing water and minerals.
    • Developed from the radicle part of a cotyledon
    • It consists of a region of meristematic activity covered by a root cap, a region of elongation, and a region of maturation having root hairs.
  • Types of roots system:
    1. Tap root system
    • It consists of a primary root that grows deep inside the soil.
    • It also bears lateral roots referred to as secondary and tertiary roots.
    • Example- Dicotyledons (mustard)
  • 2.Fibrous root system
    • Primary root is short-lived and is replaced by a large number of secondary roots.
    • Example- Monocotyledons (wheat)
  • 3. Adventitious roots
    • Roots arise from parts other than the radicle.
    • Example- Banyan tree
  • Root modifications
    • Prop roots – Example: banyan tree
    • Stilt roots – Example: maize and sugarcane
    • Pneumatophores (that helps in respiration) – Example: Rhizophora​
  • Characteristics of Root for Absorbing Water
    • Enormous surface area
    • Root hairs conta…

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