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Plant Growth and Development

Seed

What is Growth?

  • It is a characteristic of living beings in which an irreversible permanent increase in size of an organ or its parts occur. In smaller living beings, an increase in the size of a cell can also be termed as growth.

Characteristics of Plant growth

  • Plant Growth is Indeterminate

    • Plants retain the capacity of unlimited growth throughout life.
    • Meristems are present in plants that have the ability to divide and self perpetuate.
    • Open form of growth − New cells are always being added to the plant by meristem.
    • Primary Growth − Occurs due to root apical meristems and shoot apical meristems
    • Secondary growth − Occurs due to the appearance of lateral meristems, vascular cambium, and cork cambium later in the life of certain dicots and gymnosperms
  • Plant Growth is Measurable

    • Growth is measured by measuring the parameters that are directly proportional to increase in protoplasm.
    • Increase in weight (fresh and dry weight both), length, area, volume, and cell number are some parameters.
    • Choice of parameters depends upon type of plant.
      Examples:
      For pollen tube − length is the parameter
      For water melon − cell size is used
      For dorsiventral leaf − surface area is used
In the above topics we have studied what is plant growth, but you must be aware that a plant can grow only after germination of seed.
This, means that seed germination is the first step in the growth of plants. Lets study more about seed germination.

Seed germination
  • It is the first step in the process of growth of plants.

  • Seed germination requires certain necessary conditions necessary like availability of water and oxygen. In the absence of these, the seeds may fail to germinate.

  • The steps of seed germination include -

    • absorp…

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