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Page No 150:

Question 1.A1:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

14 principles of management are developed by ________.
(a) F.W. Taylor
(b) Henry Fayol
(c) Peter Drucker

Answer:

Correct option-b
14 principles of management are developed by Henry Fayol.
Explanation-
On the basis of his experience, observations and experiments in the field of management, Fayol developed 14 principles of management and published them in his book ‘General and Industrial Administration’.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A2:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

Management principles influence ________.
(a) human behaviour
(b) organisation
(c) government

Answer:

Correct option-a
Management principles influence human behaviour.
Explanation-
Management comprises of humans, and management principles are the rules that govern the working of any management. Thus, management principles are said to influence human behaviour.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A3:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

Concentration of power of authority is stated in the principle of ________.
(a) Centralisation
(b) Remuneration
(c) Equity

Answer:

Correct option-a
Concentration of power of authority is stated in the principles of Centralisation.
Explanation-
Centralisation implies that the power is concentrated in the hands of the people in top management only. In other words, only few people in the organisation have the power or authority to take decisions; the others are expected to follow them.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A4:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

According to the principle of  ________ all employees should be given same treatment.
(a) Authority
(b) Discipline
(c) Equity.

Answer:

Correct option-c
According to the principles of equity, all employees should be given same treatment.
Explanation-
The principle of equity states that fair treatment should be given to each of the subordinates by the superiors in any organisation. For example, people doing similar work should be given equal salary.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A5:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

Technique of study of ________ concentrates on the body movements of the worker.
(a) Motion
(b) Time
(c) Organisation

Answer:

Correct option-a
The technique of the study of motion concentrates on the body movements of a worker.
Explanation-
Motion study is a technique of scientific management in which body movements of employees are closely observed. It involves identification of the movements that are essential for the performance of various tasks. The study aims to eliminate unproductive movements.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A6:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

F.W. Taylor is called as the father of ________ management.
(a) Modern
(b) Scientific
(c) Technical

Answer:

Correct option-b
F.W. Taylor is known as the “father of scientific management”.
Explanation-
Taylor developed certain principles based on scientific management that have now gained acceptance in the world over. Since he introduced a scientific approach to management, he is regarded as the “father of scientific management”.

Page No 150:

Question 1.A7:

Select the proper option from the options given below and rewrite completed Sentences.

Principle that focuses on complete change in the attitude of the employees is known as the principle of ________.
(a) attitude change
(b) scientific management
(c) mental revolution.

Answer:

Correct option-c
The principle that focuses a complete change in the attitude of the employees is known as the principle of mental revolution.
Explanation-
This principle emphasizes on the need to change the attitude of workers and managers. According to the principle, workers and their managers should reform their thinking and each of them should realise the importance of others while working towards the accomplishment of organisational goals.

Page No 150:

Question 1.B:

Match the correct pairs:
 

Group A
Group B
a.
Henry Fayol
1.
Universal
b.
Principle of unity of command
2.
Father of Scientific Management
c.
Time study
3.
Specific
d.
F.W. Taylor
4.
French engineer
e.
Management principles
5.
Study the time required to do a job
 
 
6.
German engineer
 
 
7.
One man one boss
 
 
8.
Study the body movements of the Worker
 
 
9.
Father of nation
 
 
10.
One man many bosses

Answer:

The above columns can be correctly matched as:
 

Group A
Group B
a.
Henry Fayol
4.
French engineer
b.
Principle of unity of command
10.
One man, many bosses
c.
Time study
5.
Study of the time required to do a job
d.
F W Taylor
2.
Father of scientific management
e.
Management principles
1.
Universal

a. Henry Fayol was a French mining engineer who developed 14 principles of management after conducting many experiments. He is also known as the “father of modern management”.

b. The principle of unity of command states that a subordinate should get orders from only one superior. If too many seniors command a single employee, chances are that the employee will get confused; this will also lead to delay in work.

c. In this method, the work or task to be performed is studied in detail and the time taken to complete a particular task is calculated. This helps managers to know the standard time that should be taken to complete a given task.

d. F W Taylor is known as the “father of scientific management”. He developed principles that were based on scientific experiments. He believed that problems should be solved in a scientific manner rather than on the basis of the rule of thumb.

e. An important feature of management principles is that they are universal in nature. This means that they are applicable to all types of business organisations and to all levels of management.



Page No 151:

Question 1.C1:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

Father of modern management.

Answer:

Father of modern management: Henry Fayol
Explanation-
Henry Fayol is regarded as the “father of modern management”. He developed 14 principles of management after conducting a number of experiments in the field of management. 

Page No 151:

Question 1.C2:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

Father of scientific management.

Answer:

Father of scientific management- F.W. Taylor
Explanation-
F W Taylor is regarded as the “father of scientific management” because the principles formed by him were based on scientific experiments. He had a scientific approach towards management.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C3:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The principle of management which says unity is strength.

Answer:

The principle of management which says unity is strength: Espirit de corps
Explanation-
The principle of Espirit de corps focuses on the importance of unity among employees. The concept recommends that employees should work in unity with one another. In other words, team spirit should be promoted by managers and each employee should feel a sense of belonging in the organisation.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C4:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The principle of management that says the work should be divided into parts.

Answer:

The principle of management that says the work should be divided into many parts: Division of work
Explanation-
As per the principle of division of work, a given work should be divided into many parts. It means that every task should be divided into small groups or units so that it can be performed in a competent manner. The principle focuses on work specialisation.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C5:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The principle of management explaining the importance of fair payment to workers.

Answer:

The principle of management explaining the importance of fair payment to workers: Principle of Remuneration
Explanation-
The principle of remuneration to employees states that compensation given to employees should be fair in the eyes of the employees as well the management. This implies that each person in the organisation should be given fair wage and salary; this will help him/her maintain a decent standard of living.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C6:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The principle of scientific management which explains the use of scientific methods to determine the activity performed by the employee.

Answer:

The principle of scientific management which explains the use scientific method to determine the activity performed by the employee: Development of Science for each part of men’s job
Explanation-
The principle explains that instead of rule-of-thumb methods, scientific practices should be followed. Under the rule of thumb, a manager uses the trial-and-error method to find solutions to problems. Taylor suggested that a rigorous study of traditional methods should be undertaken and the best method/solution should be adopted by all managers.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C7:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The principles of scientific management which talks about the change in the attitude of the employees.

Answer:

The principle of scientific management which talks about the change in the attitude of the employees: Mental revolution
Explanation-
Mental revolution focuses on changing the attitude of workers and managers. According to this concept, workers and their managers should reform their thinking and each should realise the importance of the other while working towards the accomplishment of common organisational goals.

Page No 151:

Question 1.C8:

Write a word or phrase or a term which can substitute each one of the following.

The statements of fundamental truth of management.

Answer:

The statements of fundamental truths of management: Management principles
Explanation-
Management principles are the basic truths that govern managerial behavior. They help managers in taking managerial decisions and guide them in taking the future course of actions.

Page No 151:

Question 2.1:

Write short note on the following.

Nature of management.

Answer:

The following points highlight the nature of the principles of management:

i. Universal - Universality of management principles implies that they can be applied to every firm, irrespective of its size, nature or location.

ii. Act as guidelines - Management principles act as guidelines; they are considered general premises for decision making. However, they do not provide straitjacket solutions to all problems.

iii. Experiment based - Management principles have been developed through years of research and experimentation; that is why they are technical in nature. They pertain to different working situations and can be modified by managers as per the situations and requirements.

iv. Flexible - Management principles are not rigid in nature. They can be moulded by managers as per the need of the hour.

Page No 151:

Question 2.2:

Write short note on the following.

Significance of management.

Answer:

Principles of management play an important role in governing managerial practices. The following points highlight the significance of principles of management:

i. Help gain insights into reality - Principles of management are based on years of experimentation and experience. Therefore, these principles guide managers when they face real-life problems.

ii. Ensures optimal use of resources and efficiency - Principles of management optimize the use of the resources. With the help of these principles, management can determine and predict the exact cause and effect relationship of their decisions. Thus, any plausible wastage of resources is avoided and efficiency is attained.

iii. Promote research and development - The principles of management are flexible in nature and can therefore be moulded as per the requirements. This in turn helps the organizations to change according to the need and invest in R&D accordingly.

iv. Focus on social responsibility - Management principles help the managers and workers of any organisation in fulfilling their social responsibilities. The principles focus on the importance of taking care of business dealings while paying equal attention to customers’ values.

Page No 151:

Question 2.3:

Write short note on the following.

Any five principles of management.

Answer:

The following are the five principles of management suggested by Fayol:

i. Division of work - Division of work means that a given task should be divided into small groups or units so that it can be performed in a competent manner.

ii. Authority and responsibility - ‘Authority’ means the power to give orders and assign duties, whereas ‘responsibility’ refers to a worker’s obligation to perform the assigned duties. According to this principle, managers should strike a balance between power and obligation.

iii. Discipline - The principle says that an organisation should follow rules and regulations and also ensure conformity to the set rules and policies.

iv. Unity of command - According to the concept of unity of command, an employee should be answerable to only one boss. If an employee receives commands and directions from two or more superiors, then it will create chaos and conflict.

v. Unity of direction - Unity of direction means that each unit of an organisation works towards the accomplishment of one common organisational objective. According to the principle, different units having common goals should have a single head.

Page No 151:

Question 2.4:

Write short note on the following.

Any five principles of scientific management.

Answer:

The following are the five principles of scientific management:

i. Science, not a rule of thumb - The principle states that instead of rule-of-thumb methods, scientific management practices should be followed. Taylor suggested that a study of traditional methods should be undertaken and the best method/solution should be adopted by all managers.

ii. Cooperation between management and employees - Taylor emphasised managers and workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise their interdependence and work in amity.

iii. Division of responsibility - This principle emphasised that the work and the responsibility should be divided between the managers and the employees according to their role and nature. This would ensure efficiency and effectiveness in work.

iv. Scientific selection, training and development of workers - Taylor suggested that selection of employees is an important task for a manager. According to him, the selection procedure should be perfect and various points should be considered such as defining the requirements clearly and motivating employees to improve his/her efficiency.

v. Mental revolution - Mental revolution implies changing the attitude of workers and managers and improving their thinking to create a better working environment. According to it, management should take care of the needs of the workers and share benefits with them; workers, in turn, should put in their best efforts.

Page No 151:

Question 2.5:

Write short note on the following.

Techniques of scientific management.

Answer:

The following are some of the techniques of scientific management:

i. Standardisation of work - Standardisation of work implies setting a milestone or benchmark for any work or activity. It aims at establishing standards of excellence against which actual performance can be measured.

ii. Time study - In this technique, Taylor emphasised setting a standard time limit for completing any particular job. With the help of time-measuring tools, considerable readings can be taken of the time taken to complete a task. On the basis of this, a standard time limit can be set for each task.

iii. Motion study - As the name suggests, motion study refers to the study of motion (movements) involved while doing a task. The technique aims at removing unwanted actions/motions so that the work can be completed in a lesser time.

iv. Different piece rate plan - Under this system, workers should be classified as efficient or inefficient on the basis of certain specific standards (related to quality and quantity) and the payments should be given accordingly.

Page No 151:

Question 2.6:

Write short note on the following.

Principle of scalar chain.

Answer:

Scalar chain refers to a pre-defined, formal path of authority and communication in the line of order (from the highest rank to the lowest rank). For example, A is the CEO of an organisation and he has two paths of authorities under him. One is A-B-C and the other is A-D-E. Everybody in the organisation follows this chain of authority for communication. For example, if C wants to contact E, then he will have to follow the formal path C→B→A→D→E. That is, C will first have to contact higher authorities (C→B→A); they, in turn, will transverse the communication to E (A→D→E).

Page No 151:

Question 2.7:

Write short note on the following.

Principle of scientific selection, training and development of workers.

Answer:

Taylor suggested that selection of employees is a vital task for any manager. The selection process should be systematic. The following points should be considered by managers before hiring employees:

i. The candidate should be selected scientifically; that is, the selection should not be based on the judgement of one person.

ii. The skills required for the job (physical, mental and technical) should be clearly stated.

iii. The selection should be based on tests and personal interviews.

iv. Timely training of employees is important, as it keeps the employees updated and productive.

v. Employees should be provided with career growth opportunities. The manager should lay down the required skills to get a promotion.

vi. Development programs should be conducted by the manager to improve the efficiency of employees.

Page No 151:

Question 3.1:

State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

Taylor is called as the father of scientific management.

Answer:

Taylor is called as the father of scientific management-True.
Explanation-
F.W. Taylor developed certain principles based on scientific management that are now accepted all over the world. His approach to management was scientific, so he is called the “father of scientific management”.

Page No 151:

Question 3.2:

State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

Principles of management are rigid.

Answer:

Principles of management are rigid - False
Explanation-
Principles of management are flexible in nature. It means that they can be moulded as per the need of the hour or as per the requirement. 

Page No 151:

Question 3.3:

State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

Principles of management improve the efficiency of employees.

Answer:

Principles of management improve the efficiency of employees. - True
Explanation-
Principles of management aim at improving the productivity and efficiency of employees. They help managers in the decision-making process and also help in reducing wastage, thereby increasing the efficiency of employees.

Page No 151:

Question 3.4:

State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

According to Taylor, there should be scientific selection and training of employees.

Answer:

According to Taylor, there should be scientific selection and training of employees. - True
Explanation-
Taylor suggested that selection of employees is an important task for a manager. The selection procedure should be done carefully and systematically. Proper test and interviews should be conducted before selecting an employee. Also, employees should be trained from time to time.

Page No 151:

Question 3.5:

State with reasons whether the following statements are true or false:

The principles of equity says that the employees should be differentiated while distributing the work and making payment.

Answer:

The principles of equity says that the employees should be differentiated while distributing the work and making payment. - False
Explanation-
The principle of equity states that employees should be given fair remuneration for their work and there should be no discrimination in terms of remuneration. For example, employees doing the same kind of work should be given equal salary.

Page No 151:

Question 4.1:

Write short answer for the following.

What is Taylor's scientific management?

Answer:

The term “scientific management” was developed by Frederick Taylor (1856–1915) in 1911. It refers to the classical outlook of management that focused on devising best ways of doing work in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency in work. Scientific management suggests that work should be done by specialised personnel following standardised techniques and using tools so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and, at the same time, to reduce the overall cost. Scientific management is also known as Taylorism.

Page No 151:

Question 4.2:

Write short answer for the following.

What is the significance of the principles of management?

Answer:

Principles of management play an important role in managerial practices. The following points highlight the significance of principles of management:

i. Help in logical decision making - Management decisions should be based on reasons and proofs rather than beliefs or intuition. As the principles of management were developed from experiments on real-life problems, they stand the test of logic and reasoning.

ii. Focus on social responsibility - Management principles help the managers and workers of any organisation in fulfilling their social responsibilities. The principles focus on the importance of taking care of business dealings while paying equal attention to customers’ values.

iii. Management control - By acting as the crux of the business theory and management, management principles provide the basis for management training and development. This in turn helps in exercising a better control over management.

iv. Ensures optimal use of resources and efficiency - Principles of management optimize the use of the resources. With the help of these principles, management can determine and predict the exact cause and effect relationship of their decisions. Thus, any plausible wastage of resources is avoided and efficiency is attained.

v. Promote research and development - The principles of management are flexible in nature and can therefore be moulded as per the requirements. This in turn helps the organizations to change according to the need and invest in R&D accordingly.

Page No 151:

Question 4.3:

Write short answer for the following.

State any five principles of management.

Answer:

The following are the five principles of management suggested by Fayol:

i. Initiative - The principle suggests that workers should be given enough motivation and incentives to work. They should be inspired to come up with suggestions regarding their work, but those suggestions should be in line with the practices and rules of the organisation.

ii. Authority and responsibility - ‘Authority’ means the power to give orders and assign duties, whereas ‘responsibility’ refers to a worker’s obligation to perform the assigned duties. According to this principle, managers should strike a balance between power and obligation.

iii. Discipline - The principle says that an organisation should follow rules and regulations and also ensure conformity to the set rules and policies. It is important for both the management as well as the workers to honour their commitments and make clear and fair agreements.

iv. Subordination of individual interest to general interest - Organisational goals should enjoy priority over personal interests of any individual. The individuals of an organisation should make sure that their personal interests do not affect the organisational interests in any manner.

v. Remuneration of employees - Compensation should be fair for the employees and the management. This implies that employees should get fair wages and salaries so that they can have a reasonable and decent standard of living.

Page No 151:

Question 4.4:

Write short answer for the following.

State the principles of scientific management.

Answer:

The following are the principles of scientific management:

i. Science, not a rule of thumb - Taylor initiated that use of scientific methods rather than the rule of thumb. According to him, scientific methods should be used so that the managers take decisions on the basis of logic and science rather than on the basis of trial-and-error methods.

ii. Cooperation between management and employees - Taylor emphasised managers and workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise their interdependence and work in amity.

iii. Division of responsibility - This principle emphasised that the work and the responsibility should be divided between the managers and the employees according to their role and nature. This would ensure efficiency and effectiveness in work.

iv. Scientific selection, training and development of workers - Taylor suggested that selection of employees is an important task for a manager. According to him, the selection procedure should be perfect and various points should be considered such as defining the requirements clearly and motivating employees to improve his/her efficiency.

v. Mental revolution - Mental revolution implies changing the attitude of workers and managers to make them realize the importance of each other. It aims at improving the thinking of both the parties to create a better working environment.

vi. Maximum prosperity for employer and employees - The main purpose of scientific management is to maximise prosperity for employers and employees. This can be done by giving ample opportunities to workers to attain highest efficiency and utilizing the resources optimally.

Page No 151:

Question 4.5:

Write short answer for the following.

What is the nature of principles of management.

Answer:

The following points highlight the nature of principles of management:

i. Universal - Universality of management principles implies that they can be applied to every firm, irrespective of its size, nature or location.

ii. Act as guidelines - Management principles act as guidelines; they are considered general premises for decision making. However, they do not provide straitjacket solutions to all problems.

iii. Experiment based - Management principles have been developed through years of research and experimentation; that is why they are technical in nature. They pertain to different working situations and can be modified by managers as per the situations and requirements.

iv. Behavioral - Management principles aim at influencing the behaviour of individuals; the applicability of these principles varies according to changes in human nature.

v. Indicative of cause–effect relationship - As management principles are based on years of experimentation, they provide a definite cause and effect relationship.

vi. Contingent - Management principles are contingent, as they can be used in different situations depending upon the nature of the manager and the requirement of the situation.

Page No 151:

Question 4.6:

Write short answer for the following.

State the principle of mental revolution.

Answer:

Mental Revolution implies changing the attitude of workers and managers. Mental revolution aims at improving the thinking of both the parties to create a better working environment. Workers and their managers should change their attitude and each one of them should realise the importance of the other. Both should work towards the accomplishment of the common goals of the organisation. The management should take care of the needs of the workers and share benefits with them. On the other hand, workers should put in their best efforts to increase their efficiency and productivity along with utilizing the resources optimally.



Page No 152:

Question 5.1:

Answer the following questions.

Explain meaning of principles of management and discuss the nature principles of management.

Answer:

Management principles are the basic truths that govern managerial behaviour. They help managers in taking managerial decisions. They are the general premises that can be applied to different situations.

The following points highlight the nature of the principle of management:

i. Universal - Universality of management principles implies that they can be applied to every firm, irrespective of its size, nature or location.

ii. Act as guidelines - Management principles act as guidelines; they are considered general premises for decision making. However, they do not provide straitjacket solutions to all problems.

iii. Experiment based - Management principles have been developed through years of research and experimentation; that is why they are technical in nature. They pertain to different working situations and can be modified by managers as per the situations and requirements.

iv. Flexible - Management principles are not rigid in nature. They can be moulded by managers as per the need of the hour.

v. Behavioural - Management principles aim at influencing the behaviour of individuals; the applicability of these principles varies according to changes in human nature.

vi. Indicative of cause–effect relationship - As management principles are based on years of experimentation, they provide a definite cause and effect relationship.

Page No 152:

Question 5.2:

Answer the following questions.

Discuss Henry Fayol's 14 Principles of management.

Answer:

The following are the 14 principles of management suggested by Fayol:

i. Division of work - It means that a given task should be divided into small groups or units so that it can be performed in a more competent manner. This principle focuses on work specialisation.

ii. Authority and responsibility - ‘Authority’ means the power to give orders and assign duties, whereas ‘responsibility’ refers to someone’s obligation to perform the assigned duties. According to the principle, managers should strike a balance between power and obligation.

iii. Discipline - The principle says that every organisation should follow certain rules and regulations and ensure conformity to the set rules and policies. The management and the workers should honour their commitments and make fair agreements.

iv. Unity of command - According to the principle of unity of command, an employee should be answerable to only one boss. If an employee receives commands and directions from two or more superiors, then there will be chaos and conflict.

v. Unity of direction - Unity of direction means that each unit of an organisation should work towards the accomplishment of one goal. According to the principle, different units sharing common goals should have a single head and should frame plans and carry out tasks accordingly. This system ensures elimination of overlapping and duplication of work.

vi. Subordination of individual interest to general interest - Organisational goals should enjoy priority over personal interests of any individual. The individuals of an organisation should make sure that their personal interests do not affect the organisational interests in any manner.

vii. Remuneration of employees - Compensation should be fair for the employees and the management. This implies that employees should get fair wages and salaries so that they can have a reasonable and decent standard of living.

viii. Centralisation and decentralisation - Centralisation refers to the consolidation of power and authority in few hands. On the other hand, decentralisation refers to the delegation of authority to more than one level. As per the principle, the management must strike a balance between the areas that need to be decentralised and the responsibilities that need to be retained at the top-level management.

ix. Scalar chain - Scalar chain refers to a pre-defined, formal path of authority and communication in the line of order (from the highest rank to the lowest rank). Every individual in an organisation follows this chain of authority for communication.

x. Order - The principle focuses on the right arrangement of things at their respective places, i.e., ‘the right people at the right place and at the right time’. Order helps in carrying out tasks smoothly, and violation of this principle leads to chaos and delays in work.

xi. Equity - The principle focuses on treating each employee fairly and equally. According to the principle, all employees should be equal in the eyes of the management. All workers should be regarded as equal, irrespective of their religion, language, caste, etc.

xii. Stability of personnel - The principle suggests that the management should follow a rigorous procedure for the selection of potential candidates and work towards retaining employees for as long as possible. This ensures stability of personnel over a longer period.

xiii. Initiative - The principle suggests that workers should be given enough motivation and incentives to work. They should be inspired to come up with suggestions regarding their work, but those suggestions should be in line with the practices and rules of the organisation.

xiv. Espirit de corps - Espirit de corps is a concept that recommends that all employees should work in unity with one another. In other words, team spirit should be promoted by the managers and each employee should feel a sense of belongingness with the organisation.

Page No 152:

Question 5.3:

Answer the following questions.

What is scientific management? Explain the principles of scientific management in details.

Answer:

The term “scientific management” was developed by Frederick Taylor (1856–1915) in 1911. It refers to the classical outlook of management that focused on devising best ways of doing work in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency in work. Scientific management suggests that work should be done by specialised personnel following standardised techniques and using tools so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and, at the same time, to reduce the overall cost.
The following are the principles of scientific management:

i. Development of Science for each part of men’s job - Before Taylor developed the principles of management, the rule of thumb was a widely used concept. Under the rule of thumb, each manger handled a situation or problem as and when it arose using the trial-and-error method. Taylor introduced scientific methods in problem solving. He believed that there exists only one best method of doing every work. He wanted managers to take decisions on the basis of logic and science rather than on the basis of the rule of thumb.

ii. Cooperation between management and employees - Taylor emphasised managers and workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise their interdependence and work in amity. He was well acquainted with the fact that a friendly working environment can help develop relations between workers. He introduced this principle to maintain a peaceful kinship among people.

iii. Division of responsibility - This principle emphasised that the work and the responsibility should be divided between the managers and the employees according to their role and nature. The top-level managers should be assigned the planning work whereas the implementation and execution of plans should be the responsibility of workers. This would ensure efficiency and effectiveness in work.

iv. Scientific selection, training and development of workers - Taylor suggested that selection of employees is an important task for a manager. The selection procedure should be perfect. The following points should be considered before hiring employees:

a. The selection procedure should be scientific; that is, it should not be based on the judgement of a particular person.

b. The qualities or the requirements for the job should be clearly defined to make the selection process easier.

c. The selection of employees should be based on tests and personal interviews.

d. The employees should be trained regularly.

e. The manager should provide opportunities to the workers to grow.

f. The manager should motivate each and every employee to improve his/her efficiency.

v. Mental revolution - Mental revolution implies changing the attitude of workers and managers. Mental revolution aims at improving the thinking of both the parties to create a better working environment. Workers and their managers should change their attitude and each of them should realise the importance of the other. Both should work towards the achievement of common goals of the organisation.

vi. Maximum prosperity for employer and employees - The main purpose of scientific management is to maximise prosperity for employers and employees. The following points can help make it possible:

a. Employees should be given ample opportunities to attain highest efficiency.

b. Resources should be properly utilised.

c. Employees should give maximum output.

Page No 152:

Question 5.4:

Answer the following questions.

What are the techniques of scientific management according to F.W. Taylor?

Answer:

The techniques of scientific management are as follows:

i. Functional foremanship - A foreman is a person who is in charge of the workers at the operational level. Taylor suggested that in order to increase efficiency in an organisation, performance of a foreman should be improved. Taylor observed and identified few qualities such as intelligence, tactfulness and judgement that a foreman should have. He found that no single person can have all the required qualities. Thus, he suggested that instead of a single person, there should be eight persons to perform the functions of a foreman. This technique is called functional foremanship.

ii. Standardisation of work - Standardisation of work implies setting a milestone or benchmark for any work or activity. It aims at establishing standards of excellence against which actual performance can be measured.

iii. Time study - In this technique, Taylor emphasised setting a standard time limit for completing any particular job. With the help of time-measuring tools, considerable readings can be taken of the time taken to complete a task. On the basis of this, a standard time limit can be set for each task. This helps in deciding the number of workers to be employed for a task, determining their wages, etc.

iv. Motion study - As the name suggests, motion study refers to the study of motion (movements) involved while doing a task. The technique aims at removing unwanted actions/motions so that the work can be completed in a lesser time. According to Taylor, by eliminating the unproductive movements, productivity can be increased.

v. Different piece rate plan - Under this system, workers should be classified as efficient or inefficient on the basis of certain specific standards (related to quality and quantity) and the payment of these workers should then be paid accordingly. For example, the standard output per labour per day is 10 units. Now, it is decided that the workers who make more than or equal to the standard units will get Rs 20 per unit and those who make less than the standard units will get Rs 10 per unit. In this way, a difference can be made between efficient and inefficient workers.

vi. Other techniques - Taylor introduced other techniques such as the use of instruction cards, rules and regulations for discipline and use of charts or graphs to instruct the employees. Some techniques also emphasised on building cooperation and mutual trust between the workers and the managers.



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