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Biotechnology : Process and Application

Biotechnology is the field of molecular biology dealing with the techniques of using live microorganisms to produce products that are useful to humankind.
Genetic engineering

  • It is a technique used by scientists for manipulating genetic material of living organisms.
  • It involves artificial synthesis, isolation, modification and transfer of genetic material into a host organism to alter its phenotype.
  • DNA cloning/Gene cloning: It is the method of making multiple identical copies of a single gene.
  • Plasmid: It is a small, circular, extra-chromosomal genetic material that is capable of self replication.
  • Characteristics of plasmid –
    • Has an origin of replication
    • Has a selectable marker
    • One or few cloning sites
Recombinant DNA technology
  • It is a set of t…

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