Group 15 elements:
- The valence shell electronic configuration is ns2 np3.
- Nitrogen differs in chemical properties from other elements of the group due to its small size, high electronegativity, high ionisation enthalpy and non-availability of d-orbitals.
- They exhibit two oxidation states, +3 and +5. Heavier elements exhibit mainly +3 oxidation state due to inert pair effect.
The main use of nitrogen is in the manufacture of ammonia
- On a small scale, ammonia is obtained from ammonium salts, which decompose when treated with caustic soda or lime. It forms metal salt, water, and ammonia gas.
- Ammonia can also be prepared by treating metal nitrides with warm water.
It has trigonal pyramidal structure with nitrogen atom at the apex.
- Dry ammonia gas (gaseous ammonia)
- Liquid ammonia (liquified ammonia)
- Liquor ammonia fortis (saturated solution of ammonia in water)
- Laboratory bench reagent (dilute solution of liquor ammonia)
- On large scale, ammonia is obtain…
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