Kinetic Theory of Gases and Radiation
Atomic hypothesis: All things are made of atoms − little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are at a little distance apart and repelling when squeezed into one another.
Atomic theory: Proposed by John Dalton to explain the laws of definite and multiple proportions.
First law states that any given compound has fixed proportion by mass of its constituents.
Second law states that when two elements form more than one compound, for a fixed mass of one element, the masses of the other elements are in the ratio of small integers.
Gay-Lussac’s law: When gases combine chemically to yield another gas, their volumes are in the ratio of small integers.
Avogadro’s law: Equal volumes of all gases at equal temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules.
- Boyle’s Law PV = constant, at constant temperature
- Charles’s Law V T, provided P is constant
- Avogadro’s Law At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules.
- Graham’s Law of Diffusion At same temperature and pressure, the rate of diffusion of each gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the density of the gas.
- Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure: The pressure exerted by a mixture of several gases equals the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas occupying the same volume as that of the mixture.
- Equation of state of a perfect gas
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