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Natural Resources - Air, Water and Land


  • Environment-natural surroundings and external conditions of an organism, which include all living and non-living factors that affect the organism
  • Organism- is the basic unit of an ecological hierarchy, can be unicellular such as Amoeba and paramecium or multicellular such as humans
  • Population- a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting a given geographical area at a particular time and functioning as a unit
  • Community- includes all individuals of different species living within a certain geographical area
  • Ecosystem- includes both living and non-living components of an area
  • Biosphere- The sum total of all ecosystems and their interactions


Components of an ecosystem

  • Abiotic factors- non living components like light, temperature, water, air etc.
  • Biotic factors-living organisms
  • Autotrophs or producers- organisms that can manufacture their own food from inorganic raw materials, also known as producers
  • Heterotrophs-cannot synthesize their own food; dependent on other organisms for their food requirements.
  • Herbivores or primary consumers - feed only on plants e.g., deer, horse, sheep etc.
  • Carnivores or secondary consumers - eat other animals e.g., frog, cat, spider etc.
  • Omnivores- feed on both plants and animals e.g. bear, …

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