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Our Skeletal System and the Skin

Types of Bones; Fracture

Skin is the outermost covering of the body and covers the entire body.

It has a surface area of 1.5-2 meters and accounts for 12-15% of the total body weight.

The skin along its derivatives constitutes the integumentary system.

Structure of the Skin

Skin is made up of two main components:

  • Skin proper

  • Skin derivatives

Skin Proper

The skin proper is composed of two layers:

  • Epidermis

  • Dermis

Epidermis

The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, which is formed by stratified squamous epithelium layers, which are arranged in horizontal layers. It is considered to be a lifeless tissue as it lacks any blood vessels.

The epidermis contains keratin, which makes it tough. The epidermis is made up of three sub-layers, which are:

  • Outermost cornified layer (stratum corneum) - This layer is made up of dead cells containing keratin. This layer forms a tough outer covering. The cells in these layers get worn out and are continuously replaced. This layer provides resistance against mechanical damage, bacterial infection and loss of water by evaporation.

  • Granular layer- It consists of flattened living cells and replaces the cornified layer when its cells get worn out.

  • Malpighian layer − It is the innermost layer of the epidermis. Cells in this layer are continuously dividing. This layer contains the pigment melanin, which determines the skin color.

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