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Human Reproduction

Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System

  • It is located in the pelvic region.

  • It consists of:

    • A pair of testes

    • Accessory glands and ducts

    • External genitalia


  • ​Situated within the scrotum, which protects the testes and also helps in maintaining the temperature.
  • Each testis is 4 to 5 cm in length, and 2 to 3 cm in width, and has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules.

  • Testicular lobules have seminiferous tubules which are the sites of sperm formation.

  • Seminiferous tubules are lined by two types of cells:

    • Male germ cells − They undergo meiosis to form sperms.

    • Sertoli cells − They provide nourishment to the germ cells.

  • Region outside the seminiferous tubules is called the interstitial space, which contains Leydig cells (interstitial cells). The Leydig cells produce androgens.

Accessory Ducts and Glands

  • Accessory ducts include:

    • Rete testis

    • Vasa efferentia

    • Epididymis

    • Vas deferens

  • The seminiferous tubules open into the vasa efferentia through the rete testis.

  • The vasa efferentia open into the epididymis, which leads to the vas deferens. The vas deferens opens into the urethra along with a duct from the seminal vesicle called the ejaculatory duct.

  • The ejaculatory duct stores the sperms and transports them to the outside

  • The urethra starts from the urinary bladder, extends through the penis and opens via the urethral meatus.

  • Accessory glands include:

    • A pair of seminal vesicles

    • Prostate gland

    • A pair of bulbourethral glands

  • The secretions of these glands make up the seminal plasma, and provide nutrition and a medium of motility to the sperms.

Female Reproductive System

  • It is located in the pelvic region:
  • It includes:

    • A pair of ovaries
    • A pair of oviducts
    • Uterus
    • Cervix
    • Vagina
    • External genitalia
    • Mammary glands (not part of the reproductive system, but aids in child care)
  • They are the primary female sex organs. They produce the ovum and other ovarian hormones.
  • They are located in the lower abdomen, and are 2 to 4 cm in length.
  • They are connected by ligaments to the pelvic walls and to the uterus.
  • Each ovary is covered by epithelium, and contains the ovarian stroma.
  • The ovarian stroma is made up of:

    • Peripheral cortex
    • Inner medulla


  • They are also called fallopian tubes.
  • They are 10 to 12 cm long, and extend from the ovary to the uterus.
  • The part of each oviduct lying towards the ovary is funnel shaped, and is called infundibulum. It has finger-like projections called fimbriae.
  • The infundibulum leads to the ampulla, and then to the isthmus, which has a narrow lumen opening into the uterus.


  • It is also called womb, and is pear shaped.
  • It is connected to the pelvic walls by ligaments.
  • The uterine wall consists of:

    • External perimetrium
    • Middle myometrium
    • Internal endometrium, which lines the uterine cavity
  • The endometrium undergoes changes during the menstrual cycle.

Cervix and Vagina

  • The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina.
  • The cervix and the…

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