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Electricity and Energy

  • Electric potential: The Electric potential of a point in an electric field is defined as the work to be done to move a unit positive charge from infinity to that point.
  • Potential difference: The potential difference between two separate points is defined as the work done to move a unit positive charge from one point to another.



  • The bulb will glow or the magnetic needle will show deflection if the liquid in the beaker is a good conductor of electricity.
  • Greater the deflection of needle or brighter the light, better is the conductivity of the liquid.

Good conductor

Poor conductor
Lemon Juice Coal tar
Vinegar Distilled water
Acid solutions Honey
Basic solutions Vegetable oil
Salty water Kerosene
  • Conducting liquids are also called electrolytes.
  • The electric current passing through a conducting liquid (electrolyte) causes chemical reactions (electrolysis).
1. Symbols of Electric components

Electric component                             


Electric cell

Electric bulb



Switch in ON position

Switch in OFF position


2. Combination…

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