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GRAMMAR :UNIT13 PHRASES AND CLAUSES
Q1. Mark the words underlined as phrases(P) or clauses(C).
i. The tops of the mountains were covered with snow. ?
ii. Mother was sure that Sunita had broken the cup. ??
iii. I will meet you very soon in school. ??
iv. We left before the rain started. ??
v. The supermarket, where there is a sale, is two blocks away from my house.
Q2. Complete these sentences with phrases or clauses as indicated in the brackets.
i. ?????? Rajni stopped at Mr. Kumar?s shop to give him the good news. (phrases)
ii. ?????? we are playing the Chennai team. (phrase)
iii. I will meet you ????. (phrases)
iv. I do not know ????? (clause)
UNIT 14 ADJECTIVAL PHRASES
Q1. Complete the adjectival phrases in these sentences with the correct preposition.
i. Ritu was a happy person ?? a great sense of humour.
ii. My cousin is renting a flat ??.. the top floor of the building where I live.
iii. I love looking at the coconut trees ??.. the river.
iv. The police were keeping a close watch on the man ??.. the blue shirt.
v. Saroj is reading a novel ??.. a brave girl.
vi. I love the colour of the building ??.. the street.
Q3. Choose the correct adjectival phrase from the box to complete the sentences.
Waving her hand at us sporting a silk tie
Behind the house with the hooked beak
On the top shelf wearing huge earrings
Of a very long road above a restaurant
i. Did you see the man ??????
ii. I used to live in a flat ????? .
iii. The bird ????? is a vulture.
iv. The lily pool is in the garden ????. .
v. The girl ?????. dances well.
vi. Can you get me the book ???? ?
UNIT 15 ADVERBIAL PHRASES:
1. Rewrite these sentences using in spite of or despite
i. Although there was heavy traffic, Mirza reached the station on time.
ii. Although the ship was badly damaged , it sailed on.
iii. Although Sonal was ill, she still came to school.
iv. Although the day was hot, the children went out to play.
2. Join these sentences using the adverbs in the brackets:
i. Rahul is not fond of sports. He is strong and healthy. (though)
ii. The fisherman sailed. There was storm. Amir changed his job. He wanted to earn more money. (in order to)
iii. I went to bed early. I wanted to get plenty of sleep (in order to).
iv. Jai entered the book shop.It was raining. (because of )
v. I am enjoying life in hostel . I miss home badly. (despite)
vi. We ate very little .We were quite hungry.(in spite of )
vii. The roads were flooded . We reached the station on time. (although)
UNIT 16. SIMPLE , COMPOUND ,AND COMPLEX SENTENCES :
1. Form compound sentences using and , but , or , so or yet
i. Maya plans to studyfurther.She wants to qualify for a better job.
ii. He woke up early. He did not go to school on time.
iii. We went to see movie. We did not like it.
iv. Polly did not understand the sum. She asked her brother.
v. Susan could sit at home and relax . She could go on vacation.
2. Change these simple sentences into complex sentences.
i. We thought Rohan to be innocent.
ii. She speaks too fast, to be understood.
iii. It is too hot to play in the garden.
iv. We saw a wounded deer in the park.
v. The students hope to know the result by the evening.
vi. The teacher is likely to be absent today.
vii. The child stood up on the chair to see better.
UNIT 17 CONDITIONALS:
1. Complete these sentences with the correct forms of the verb in the brackets:
i. If you ....................(tell) Mary a secret , she is sure to tell everyone!
ii. I ....... (will) do that if I were you.
iii. If you ............(complete) your assignment, you may leave.
iv. If the principal.......... (know) about the problem , he would definitely have helped.
v. Sometimes the computer crashes if you..........(have) too many things on your desktop.
2. Make sentences using if and join each pair of ideas to denote the type of conditional in the brackets . Write the sentences in two ways:
i. You call me. I certainly come. {Type 1}
ii. I know Akshay?s address I have visited him. {Type 2}
iii. Plant grow well. You tend to them.{Type 3}
iv. Salma might agree to join us. We insist. {Type 3}
3. Read these sentences and answer them using conditional sentences:
i. If you met an alien, how would you react?
ii. If you were a writer, what would you write about?
iii. If you could buy any music CD you wanted, which one would you buy?
UNIT 18 DEFINING AND NON- DEFINING CLAUSES:
1. Relative clause are used to define work or people.Frame two sentences about each profession in the box , based on the tools used:
Astronomer Stethoscope
Dentist Drill
Plumber Wrench
Doctor Saw
Carpenter Telescope


2. Combine each pair of sentences using relative pronouns. Place commas where necessary and write whether the clause is defining or non-defining:
i. The author was a Keralite. He wrote this book.
ii. He comes from a beautiful area in Kollam. This area is famous for its scenic beauty
iii. They had one daughter. She became an actor.
iv. He married a lovely woman. The woman is also a writer.
v. Do you remember the name of his novel ? The novel won the Sahitya Akademy Award.
3. Underline the adjectival clause and circle the noun that each clause modifies. Punctuate the non-defining clause and explain why a particular clause is defining or non-defining.
i. In the class we have students who are very motivated.
ii. Our Judo class which meets at five every evening is great fun.
iii. My mother who is working in a finance company often goes away on tours.
iv. People who live in hilly areas are used to cold weathers.
UNIT 19 MODALS OF ABILITY
1. Complete these sentences using can ,could , and be able to :
i. One day , we ..... live without wars.
ii. Ravi might .... repair the computer , but it ........... take him a while.
iii. Vasu ..... drive a car , but he does not know how to ride a bicycle.
iv. He ... have easily won the race had he not slowed down towards the end.
v. How many foreign languages ..... you speak.
vi. You ..... come home at the weekend.
2. Complete these sentences by matching column A with column B.
A B
i. When the computer crashed yesterday a. but I could not open the window
ii. I am busy today b. even though she had not studied much
iii. He called us because c. i was able to fix it
iv. I tried with all my strength d. but I can help you tomorrow
v. She was able to pass the exam e. he could not find the house

UNIT 20 Modals of possibility and probability
1. Rewrite these sentences , replacing the words in bold with the appropriate modal for the situation. Make changes in the sentences wherever necessary:
i. She is unlikely to have left without informing anyone. (begin: She....)
ii. Dont worry . It is possible that Ravi is coming tomorrow morning. (begin: Ravi ....)
iii. It is likely that you have left the keys at home. (begin: You ...)
iv. You can try and call but it is possible that the painting has been sold by now. (begin: The painting ....)
2. Rearrange these words into meaningful sentences by including the modals in bold letters in the correct places:
i. Imran / her / friend school / Susie / and still/ be/ at / could
ii. Some/ want/ the / might / more / baby/ milk
iii. They to their / may have /teacher / yesterday/ spoken
iv. Must/ match / India / the /win
v. To /tonight / he arrive /likely /is
UNIT 21 PUNCTUATION
1. Insert semicolons, capitals, full stops, commas and colons in these sentences.
i. i closed the book i had grown tired of reading
ii. the debate was drawing to a close each team gathered together to prepare its final remarks
iii. almost half the class was participating in the play ten of us as dancers five as singers and two as the main actors
2. Insert brackets and dashes in the correct places in these sentences.
i. I am sometimes asked what kind of qualities an engineer needs in his or her make up.
ii. It was Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin 1934-68 the first person to travel into space who famously declared: ?The Earth is blue.?
iii. Louis Pasteur 1822-95 was the first to prove that all forms of fermentation were caused by microbes also referred to as germs living creatures so small that they could be seen only through a microscope
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