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Question A.1:

Name the four seasons of India.

Answer:

The four seasons of India are as follows:

1. Winter: This season starts from December and continues till the end of February. During this period, the average temperature ranges between 10 oC and 25 oC. 
2. Summer: This season starts from March and ends in May or mid-June. High temperatures are recorded over the northern part of the country during summer.
3. Monsoon: This season is witnessed from June to September. India receives most of its rainfall during this time. It is caused by winds blowing from the Arabian Sea to the Indian subcontinent.
4. Retreating monsoon: From October to November, monsoon winds start moving back towards seas and cause minimal rainfall in the Indian subcontinent.

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Question A.2:

What are Western Disturbances? In which areas do they cause rain?

Answer:

Western Disturbances are cyclonic storms that originate over the Mediterranean Sea and bring rainfall to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent during winters. These storms cause snowfall in the Himalayan region. This ultimately results in cold waves in northern India. Western Disturbances are important for Rabi crops, including wheat.

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Question A.3:

Where are tropical evergreen forests found?

Answer:

Tropical evergreen forests are very dense forests found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, western slopes of the Western Ghats, northeastern states and some parts of West Bengal and Orissa.

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Question A.4:

What are the special features of mangrove trees?

Answer:

Mangrove forests are also known as tidal forests, as they are found in the eastern coast along the deltas of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Cauvery. One unique feature of these forests is that they can survive well in both salt water and freshwater. The roots of the trees found in these forests are exposed to air, as the swamp (in which they grow) restricts the intake of oxygen. These roots are referred to as breathing roots. 

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Question A.5:

What is the natural habitat of the one horned rhinoceros?

Answer:

The natural habitat of one-horned rhinoceroses is the marshy forests of Assam and West Bengal. 
 

The one-horned rhinoceros, also known as the Indian rhinoceros, is a highly vulnerable species. To conserve this species, the Indian government has established Kaziranga National Park in Assam. The park hosts almost two-thirds of the world's population of this species.

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Question B.1:

Describe the distribution of rainfall in different regions of India.

Answer:

The distribution of rainfall is very uneven in India. It can be very well understood with examples of floods in Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal and droughts in the desert region of western India. The rainfall distribution varies widely from place to place and a number of factors are responsible for it. These include relief features and topography, direction of winds and latitudinal extent.

Based on the amount of rainfall received, places in India can be geographically divided into four regions:

1. Areas with very high rainfall: These places get an annual rainfall of more than 200 cm. These include the Western Ghats and northeastern states.

2. Areas with heavy rainfall: These places receive an annual rainfall of more than 100 cm but less than 200 cm. These include the eastern coast and the Himalayan regions.

3. Areas with moderate rainfall: These places receive an annual rainfall of more than 50 cm but less than 100 cm. These include parts of the Deccan Plateau and the Upper Gangetic Plains.

4. Areas with scanty rainfall: These places receive very less rainfall; the annual rainfall is usually less than 50 cm. These include the western parts of Rajasthan and the Leh region.

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Question B.2:

What are the different types of trees found at different altitude levels in the Himalayas?

Answer:

Mountain forests are the forests found in mountains at different altitudes. They are found in regions like slopes of the Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and other northeastern states. These forests can be classified according to the altitudes at which they are found. These include the following: 

1. Alpine forests: These forests are found at a height of more than 3,300 m. They are composed of shrubs and grasslands. Because with increasing elevation, temperature starts decreasing, these forests do not support vegetation.

2. Coniferous forests: Such forests are found between the elevations of 1,600 m and 3,300 m across the Himalayas. They consist of tree species like pine, deodar, spruce and silver fir. 

3. Deciduous forests: They are broadleaf forests found between the elevations of 1,000 m and 1,600 m at the foothills of the Himalayas. Tree species like chestnut, oak, sal, bamboo and chir are found here.

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Question B.3:

The wildlife in the India is rich and varied. Explain this statement.

Answer:

India is a land of diverse wildlife.  The existence of a large variety of organisms has resulted in the formation of complex ecosystems in India. India has over 81,000 species of wildlife fauna (animals, birds, insects and mammals), which plays an important role in maintaining the balance of nature.

India is home to several large mammals like tiger, Indian bison, Asiatic lion, leopard and the one-horned rhinoceros. Tiger is India's national animal; it is found mostly in the Himalayan foothills and the Sundarban forests of the Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta.Apart from huge mammals, a large variety of reptiles, including snakes, crocodiles and alligators, are also found in the Indian subcontinent.

But today, due to large-scale deforestation and destruction of wildlife habitats, there is an urgent need to conserve the Indian wildlife. Along with the efforts of the government, there is a need to spread awareness among the people so that they can be sensitised about this issue.


 

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Question C.1:

Delhi has very hot summer and cold winters.

Answer:

Since Delhi lies in the interior part of the country and is away from the moderating influence of seas, it experiences extreme temperatures. That is why Delhi is very hot in summers and very cold in winters.

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Question C.2:

Tamil Nadu gets rain from the retreating monsoon.

Answer:

Retreating monsoon winds do not cause any rainfall over the Indian subcontinent, as they are very dry. These winds reach Tamil Nadu after crossing the Bay of Bengal, picking moisture on the way. This is the reason Tamil Nadu receives rainfall from retreating monsoon.

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Question C.3:

Trees belonging to the Thorn Forests have long roots and small leaves.

Answer:

Thorn forests are found in areas where annual rainfall is less than 100 cm. Trees in these forests have two specific features:

  1. The roots of these trees are long so that they can obtain water stored deep below the ground.
  2. The leaves of these trees are short and thorny so that water loss is minimal due to evaporation.

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Question D.1:

Advancing and retreating monsoon.

Answer:

Advancing Monsoon 
Northern India is extremely hot from June to September. This creates low pressure over this region. During this time, the sea is cool; hence, high pressure prevails over it. This pressure difference causes the movement of winds from the high-pressure zone to the low-pressure zone. Winds moving over the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea are moisture-laden. On striking with hills and mountains, they cause rainfall in India. This whole process is known as advancing monsoon. Since these monsoon winds enter the Indian Peninsula from the southwest direction, this phenomenon is also known as southwest monsoon.

Retreating Monsoon
In the month of October, temperature starts falling in northern India. This weakens the low pressure, which ultimately fails to attract the southwest monsoon and, as a result, it starts retreating. The winds blowing from land to sea are dry; hence, they do not cause any rainfall. This season from October to November is referred to as retreating monsoon. 

India receives most of its rainfall from southwest monsoon, but Tamil Nadu is an exception. It receives most of its rainfall in this season, as the retreating winds from the Bay of Bengal carry moisture and cause rainfall here.

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Question D.2:

Evergreen and deciduous forests.

Answer:

 

Evergreen Forests

Deciduous Forests

These forests are found in areas with annual rainfall of more than 200 cm.

These forests are found in areas with annual rainfall ranging between 100 cm and 200 cm.

Evergreen forests are found in areas of heavy rainfall.

 Long dry season is suitable for such forests

Trees of these forests shed their leaves at different times; hence, they remain evergreen.

Trees of these forests shed their leaves for six to eight weeks in summers.

Tree species found here are ebony, mahagony and rosewood.

Tree species found here are teak, sal, sandalwood, bamboo and shisham.

These forests are found mostly in the western slopes of the Western Ghats, northeastern states, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Orissa and West Bengal.

These forests are found mostly in the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, northern plains and slopes of the Himalayan mountains.

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Question E.1:

The advancing monsoon winds enter India from the _________ direction.

Answer:

The advancing monsoon winds enter India from the southwest direction.
 

Explanation: During summers, in the months from June to September, moisture-laden winds enter the Indian subcontinent from the southwestern direction because of the low pressure created over the northwestern part of India. Hence, this advancing monsoon is often referred to as southwest monsoon.

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Question E.2:

The western coastal plain gets more than ____________ cm of annual rain.

Answer:

The western coastal plains get more than 200 cm of annual rain.

Explanation: The western coastal plains receive more than 200 cm rainfall annually, and that is the reason they are categorised as areas of very heavy rainfall in India.

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Question E.3:

The tropical deciduous forests are also called __________ forests.

Answer:

The tropical deciduous forests are also called monsoon forests.
 

Explanation: Tropical deciduous forests are mostly endemic to places having monsoon type of climate, with rainfall ranging between 100 cm and 200 cm, and distinct dry and wet periods. Hence, such forests are referred to as monsoon forests.

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Question E.4:

_____________ is the other name given to the Indian Bison.

Answer:

Gaur is the other name given to the Indian Bison.

Explanation: The Indian Bison or Gaur is mostly found in the peninsular region and the Chota Nagpur Plateau.

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Question F.1:

On an outline map of India mark and label the following.

An area of very heavy rainfall.

Answer:



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Question F.2:

On an outline map of India mark and label the following.

An area of scanty rainfall

Answer:

The western part of Rajasthan receives less than 50 cm of rainfall throughout the year. This region is known as the Thar Desert and it consists of major portions of districts of Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Barmer and Bikaner.

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Question F.3:

On an outline map of India mark and label the following.

An area having tropical evergreen forests

Answer:

 

Evergreen forests are found in areas with temperature ranging between 15 oC and 30 oC and with the annual rainfall of more than 200 cm. Different trees in the forest shed leaves at different time. This makes the forest look evergreen throughout.

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Question F.4:

On an outline map of India mark and label the following.

An area having mountain forests.

Answer:

Mountain forests are found at high altitudes on mountains; they vary along the slopes. They are mostly a mix of deciduous and coniferous forests and have trees like pine, oak, walnut and larch. Also, these forests are home to several fauna species, including tigers, leopards and deer.

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Question F.5:

On an outline map of India mark and label the following.

Corbett, Kaziranga and Gir national parks.

Answer:

Corbett National Park is India's first national park located in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. It was established to conserve Bengal tigers.

Gir National Park is located in Gujarat. It is the only place in the world where Asiatic lions are found.

Kaziranga National Park is a World Heritage Site in Assam. It hosts two-thirds of the world's one-horned rhinoceroses.




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