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Question A.1:

What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India?

Answer:

India stretches from 8o 4' N latitude to 37o 6' N latitude and from 68o 7' E longitude to 97o 25' E longitude. Its geographical boundaries extend between Kashmir in the north and Kanyakumari in the south. India has a north–south extent of 3,200 km. Also, the west to east stretch, i.e. Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh, is of 2,900 km.

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Question A.2:

Which are the three parallel ranges of the Himalayas?

Answer:

The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas are as follows:

(1) The Greater Himalayas: They are also known as the Himadri and have an average height of 6,000 metres. They also have some of the highest peaks of the world. They extend into both India and Nepal. Mount Everest, Lhotse and Annapurna are in Nepal, while KanchenjungaNanga Parbat and Nanda Devi are in India.

(2) The Lesser Himalayas: They are also known as the Himachal. With an average height of 4,500 metres, they are home to several beautiful hill stations, including Darjeeling, Simla and Mussoorie.

(3) The Outer Himalayas: These mountains are also known as the Shivaliks. With an average height of less than 1,250 metres, they have several broad valleys called duns. They are made of loose, soft rocks and are prone to earthquakes and landslides. Dehradun lies in the Outer Himalayas.

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Question A.3:

Name the major hill ranges that make up the Purvachal mountains.

Answer:

The Purvanchal Mountains are an extension of the Himalayas in the northeast part of our country. They consist of major hill ranges such as the Patkai Bum, the Naga Hills, the Khasi Hills, the Garo Hills, the Jaintia Hills, the Mizo Hills and the Lushai Hills. The average height of these hills is around 3,000 metres.

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Question A.4:

How has the Deccan Trap region been formed?

Answer:

Millions of years ago, as huge cracks started appearing on the surface of the Earth, lava started oozing out of these cracks. This led to the formation of layers of sheets of lava, which, in turn, resulted in the formation the Deccan Trap.

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Question A.5:

Name two rivers of the Peninsular Plateau that flow into the Arabian sea.

Answer:

The Narmada and the Tapi are the two major peninsular rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea. These rivers are rain fed and are thus seasonal.

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Question A.6:

Name the island group which is of volcanic origin.

Answer:

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands situated in the Bay of Bengal are volcanic in origin. They are the peaks of submerged mountains.

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Question A.7:

What is a delta? Which is the largest delta in the world?

Answer:

A delta is formed at the mouth of a river where the river flows into an ocean, estuary or lake. The river carrying sediments deposits them at its mouth; this leads to the formation of deltas. These deltas are triangular structures with high fertility. The ​GangesBrahmaputra Delta is the world's largest delta.

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Question B.1:

Describe the important features of the three ranges of the Himalayas.

Answer:

The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas are as follows:

(1) The Greater Himalayas: They are also known as the Himadri and have an average height of 6,000 metres. They also have some of the highest peaks of the world. They extend into both India and Nepal. Mount Everest, Lhotse and Annapurna are in Nepal, while KanchenjungaNanga Parbat and Nanda Devi are in India.

(2) The Lesser Himalayas: They are also known as the Himachal. With an average height of 4,500 metres, they are home to several beautiful hill stations, including Darjeeling, Simla and Mussoorie.

(3) The Outer Himalayas: These mountains are also known as the Shivaliks. With an average height of less than 1,250 metres, they have several broad valleys called duns. They are made of loose, soft rocks and are prone to earthquakes and landslides. Dehradun lies in the Outer Himalayas.

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Question B.2:

Give an account of the Northern Plains.

Answer:

The Northern Plains make an extensive area of fertile land that lies to the south of northern mountains. The region is also known as the Indo-Gangetic Plain, which is formed by the alluvium deposited by the rivers Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries. The Northern Plains are further subdivided into the following:

(1) Indus plains: These plains are drained by the Indus River and its tributaries, namely the Chenab, the Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj. They mostly flow in Pakistan and India and drain the present-day Punjab and Haryana.

(2) Ganga plains: They are the most extensive portions of Northern Plains drained by the river Ganga and its tributaries like the Yamuna and the Kosi. The plains cover the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.

(3) Brahmaputra plains: These plains are drained by the Brahmaputra and its tributaries such as the Manas and the Teesta. Towards the mouth of these rivers, river Ganga joins them to form the largest delta of the world. This delta is located in West Bengal, of which a major portion lies in Bangladesh.

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Question B.3:

Describe the Deccan Plateau with reference to its location, formation, rivers and the hills bordering it.

Answer:

The Deccan Plateau is a part of the Peninsular Plateau. It is made of up hard igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is a large plateau and covers most of southern India, including eight states. It is separated from northern India by the Vindhyas. Some of its characteristics are as follows:


Location: It is located to the south of the Gangetic Plains and covers massive portions of land lying between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. It is further bounded by the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

Formation: The foundation of the Deccan belt was laid down eons ago when lava started getting deposited on the surface because of extensive volcanic activity. This lava formed many layers, which resulted in the formation of the Deccan region (also known as the Deccan Trap) in the northern parts.

Rivers: Most of the northern part is drained by the Godavari and its tributaries. The central part is drained by the Tungabhadra and the Krishna and their tributaries. The southernmost part is drained by the Kaveri and its tributaries. The major rivers draining this region like the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri form deltas before draining into the Bay of Bengal.

Surrounding hills: The Deccan Plateau is bounded in the north by the Satpura Range, the Mahadeo Hills, the Maikal Hills and the Kaimur Hills. Hills bordering it in the west are the Western Ghats, which consist of the Sahyadari, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai and the Cardamom Hills and hills forming its eastern edge are called the Eastern Ghats

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Question B.4:

Mention the significance of each physical division of India.

Answer:

Our country's physical features have been divided into five broad forms on the basis of topography. Because of diversity, they have a distinct geographical identity. Each division complements the other and is dependent on it. This significance can be understood with the following points:


(1) Northern mountains: The high Himalayan mountains have acted as physical barriers to intruders in the past. They protect us from the cold Siberian winds flowing in from the north. They play a major role in the distribution of rainfall and are a source of the perennial rivers.

(2) Northern plains: The Indo-Gangetic Plains are very fertile due to the deposition of alluvium by the rivers. Hence, this region is considered very good for agriculture and is also called the food bowl of India.

(3) Peninsular plateau: This region is very rich in minerals. It comprises black soil, which is used for growing cotton, sugarcane, etc. It also has a great faunal and floral diversity.

(4) Coastal plains: They house all the major ports and harbours. They are also known for their scenic beauty, which includes a large number of estuaries, lagoons and backwaters.

(5) Island groups: Both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands  and Lakshadweep are located in the critical areas of trade. These islands have extensive floral and fauna diversity. They are also known for their scenic beauty.

 

 

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Question C.1:

Western and Eastern Ghats

Answer:

 

Western Ghats Eastern Ghats
They are the mountain ranges that run parallel to the western coast of India. They are the mountain ranges that run parallel to the eastern coast of India.
The hills are high and continuous. The hills are relatively lower than the Western Ghats and are discontinuous, as they are broken by the deltas of the Deccan rivers. 
The rivers that flow here, Narmada and the Tapi are short swift and ultimately drain into the Arabian Sea. Relatively longer rivers such as  Mahanadi and Kaveri drain this region . These rivers drain into the Bay of Bengal.


 

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Question C.2:

Western and Eastern Coastal Plains

Answer:

 
Western Coastal Plains Eastern Coastal Plains
They constitute a narrow strip of land bounded by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. They are wider plains bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
They merge with the Gujarat Plains in the north. They merge with the GangesBrahmaputra Delta in the north.
They include estuaries, lagoons and backwaters (Kerala).
They include the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.

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Question D.1:

The Greater Himalayas are also known as __________.

Answer:

The Greater Himalayas are also known as the Himadri.

Explanation: The average height of mountains in this region is 6,000 metres. The region is also home to some of the highest peaks of the world, including Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga and Nanga Parbat.

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Question D.2:

The Siachen glacier lies in the __________ range.

Answer:

The Siachen Glacier lies in the Karakoram Range. ​

Explanation: It is a disputed region between India and Pakistan and is also the highest battlefield on earth.

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Question D.3:

Teesta is a tributary of __________.

Answer:

The Teesta is a tributary of the Brahmaputra.

Explanation: The Teesta flows in India and Bangladesh and is called the lifeline of Sikkim.



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Question D.4:

The northern part of the Western Coastal Plain is called the _________.

Answer:

The northern part of the Western Coastal Plains is called the Konkan Coast.

Explanation: It consists of the coastal districts of Maharashtra and Goa.

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Question D.5:

The Thar Desert is an area of _________ drainage.

Answer:

The Thar Desert is an area of inland drainage.

Explanation: Most of the rivers or streams in this region either drain into salt water streams or disappear into the sand.

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Question E.1:

Ranges − Karakoram, Shiwalik, Aravalli, Vindhya

Answer:


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Question E.2:

Peaks − K2, Nanda Devi, KanchenJunga, Anaimudi

Answer:




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Question E.3:

Rivers − Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Godavari

Answer:



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Question E.4:

Thar Desert, Malabar Coast, Coromandel Coast

Answer:



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Question F.1:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

RAKAOMKAR         ___________

Answer:

The correct answer is KARAKORAM.

Explanation: The Karakoram is the northernmost mountain range of our country lying between the Pamir Knot and the Indus River.

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Question F.2:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

DNAIAUMI         ___________

Answer:

The correct answer is ANAIMUDI.

Explanation: It is located in Kerala and is the highest peak in the Western Ghats.

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Question F.3:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

IYDVNHA             _________

Answer:

The correct answer is VINDHYA.

Explanation: The Vindhyas are a chain of mountains and hills in the western central part of India.

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Question F.4:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

REEVSET             _________

Answer:

The correct answer is EVEREST.

Explanation: It is the highest mountain peak in the world. A part of the Greater Himalayas is also located in Nepal.

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Question F.5:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

VIAR              __________

Answer:

The correct answer is RAVI.

Explanation: The Ravi River flows through India and Pakistan. It is one of the six tributaries of the Indus in Punjab.

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Question F.6:

Unscramble the following words. The first letter of each word joined together will give you the name of an important river of India.

SINUD             _________

Answer:

The correct answer is INDUS.

Explanation: The Indus is one of the longest rivers of Asia. It flows through India, Pakistan and Tibet, originating from Lake Mansarovar in Tibet.



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