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Question A.1:

Classify mountains on the basis of their origin. Give an example of each.

Answer:

Mountains can be divided into four types on the basis of their origin:
 

(1) Fold mountains: When the land gets uplifted because of the compressional forces acting on it, a fold mountain is formned. The Himalayas (India) and the Rockies (USA) are examples of fold mountains.
 
(2) Block mountains: Sometimes, as a result of the compressional forces, horizontal layers of rocks break down into several blocks; this leads to the formation of block mountains and rift valleys. Examples include the Rhine River Valley enclosed by the Vosges and the Black Forest in Germany. 

(3) Residual mountains: Old block or fold mountains undergo degradation. Due to this degradation, the mountains get eroded. These eroded mountains are called erosional or residual mountains. Examples include the Aravallis (India) and Sierra Nevada (Spain).

(4) Volcanic mountains: These mountains are formed as a result of the cooling down of lava and other materials that come out of a volcano during volcanic eruptions. Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) is an example of a volcanic mountain.

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Question A.2:

What is a plateau?

Answer:

A plateau is a huge mass of level land or flat land that rises abruptly from surrounding areas. It usually has a steep slope on one or more sides and its surface has a wave-like appearance. It is also known as a tableland.

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Question A.3:

How are volcanic plateaus formed? Give examples.

Answer:

In some places, through tiny fissures and cracks on the earth's surface, lava pours out and covers those areas. These areas form layers of lava sheets. These areas are called volcanic plateaus. The Deccan Plateau (India) and the Snake Plateau (USA) are examples of volcanic plateaus.

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Question A.4:

What is a structural plain? Give an example.

Answer:

The low-lying areas or plains that have been formed at places where rock layers are aligned almost horizontally are called structural plains, e.g. the Russian Platform.

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Question A.5:

How are depositional plains formed? Name any two such plains.

Answer:

Depositional plains are the plains that are formed by the deposition of materials in low-lying areas by agents of gradation. These agents of gradation can be wind, running water, rain, etc. Examples of depositional plains include the Northern Plains (India) and the Yangtze Basin (China).

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Question A.6:

Name two mountain ranges, two plateaus and two plains that are located in India.

Answer:

The Earth is made up of various landforms, including mountains, plateaus and plains. In India, we have several huge and imposing landforms. Some examples are as follows:

Mountain ranges: The Himalayan Range and the Aravalli Range
Plateaus: The Deccan Plateau and the Chota Nagpur Plateau
Plains: The Indo-Gangetic Plain and the Punjab Plain

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Question B.1:

Fold mountain and block mountain.

Answer:

Fold Mountains Block Mountains
When sediments deposited on a seabed are subjected to compression, they are gradually squeezed and folded, after which they form huge chains of mountains called fold mountains. Sometimes, because of compressional forces the, horizontal layers of rocks break down into several pieces called blocks.
The upfold is called an anticline and the downfold is called a syncline. The mountains that are formed because of the upliftment are called block mountains and the subsided blocks are called rift valleys.
Example: The Himalayas Example: The Rhine Valley enclosed by the Vosges

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Question B.2:

Intermontane plateau and piedmont plateau.

Answer:

 
Intermontane Plateau Piedmont Plateau
During the formation of fold mountains, the lower areas also got uplifted to form this plateau. This plateau is formed on one side of a mountain.
As this plateau lies between mountains, it is called an intermontane plateau. This plateau usually has a mountain on one side and a lowland or sea on the other side.
Examples: The Tibetan Plateau and the Bolivian Plateau Example: The Plateau of Patagonia in Argentina

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Question B.3:

Erosional plain and depositional plain.

Answer:

 
Erosional Plains Depositional Plains
These are the plains that have been formed as a result of the wearing down of the highlands because of the agents of gradation like rain, snow, air and water. These are the plains that have been formed as a result of the deposition of sediments in low-lying areas because of the agents of gradation like air and water.
Example: The West Siberian Plain in Russia Example: The Northern Plains of India formed by the deposition of sediments carried by rivers like the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra



 

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Question C.1:

Mountain regions are scantily populated.

Answer:

Mountain regions have a rugged terrain. They lack agricultural lands and transport facilities and have extremely cold winters. This makes these regions inhospitable. Many people choose not to stay in such regions. Thus, mountainous regions are scarcely populated.

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Question C.2:

Old fold mountains have low heights and rounded peaks.

Answer:

Old fold mountains have been existing for a long period of time. The forces of degradation have acted on them for centuries and they have gradually been worn down. For example, mountains like the Aravallis are older than the the Himalayas; this makes them more vulnerable to external forces. Hence, they are much shorter and have less lofty peaks compared to the Himalayas. This is the reason old fold mountains have low heights and rounded peaks.

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Question C.3:

90% of the world's population lives in plain lands.

Answer:

Plains are low-lying areas and are one of the most important landforms for the human race. They mostly consist of fertile lands, which are ideal for agriculture and related activities. Easy availability of water near river plains is a reason for the settlement of people there. The flat surfaces facilitate the construction of houses, roads, industries, etc. Hence, the majority of the world's population lives in plains.

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Question D.1:

How are mountains useful to use?

Answer:

Mountains are the most majestic of all landforms. They have great heights and are divided into different types on the basis of their origin. Mountains cover almost one-third of the world's land surface and are useful to us because of the following reasons:
  1. Perennial rivers: Many rivers originate from the glaciers of mountains. These rivers are perennial. Dams are built across these rivers to use water for irrigation and electricity production.

  2. Cultivation: The gentle slopes and river valleys of mountains are suitable for the cultivation of many crops; this, in turn, yields heavy production.

  3. Minerals: Mountains provide minerals like gold, nickel, platinum and coal for industries and stones for the construction of buildings.

  4. Flora and fauna: Mountain slopes are covered with thick, dense forests. These forests are home to many species of trees that provide timber, firewood, gum, resin, etc. Many species of animals are also found in these woods.

  5. Scenic beauty: The snowcapped mountains, iced slopes, deep valleys and swift rivers are great attractions for tourists.

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Question D.2:

What is the importance of plateaus as a natural resource?

Answer:

A plateau is a flat land mass that has risen abruptly from the surrounding area. It is considered a natural resource because it provides us several essential things for our existence. Some of them are as follows:

Minerals: Plateaus house a several variety of minerals. Mining activities are concentrated in these areas. For example, the Deccan Plateau of India is rich in bauxite, coal reserves and iron ores.

Electricity: Since plateaus have steep slopes, the rivers in these regions form a large number of waterfalls. These waterfalls are used to generate electricity. Examples of such waterfalls include Victoria Falls (Africa) and Jog Falls (India).

Crops: The plateaus that have been formed as a result of the solidification of lava are rich in black soil. This soil is used for growing cotton and sugarcane.

Vegetation and rearing: Grass is grown on plateaus and animals are reared there. Plateaus of Australia and South Africa are well known for the rearing of sheep and goats.

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Question E.1:

Glaciers are found in

a. mountains
b. plateaus
c. plains
d. Coasts

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Glaciers are also known as "rivers of ice." They are a very common feature on mountain slopes. Glaciers generally give rise to perennial rivers. In India, some of the important glaciers are the Siachen Glacier and the Gangotri Glacier.

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Question E.2:

The Alps are located in

a. North America
b. South America
c. Europe
d. Australia

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Alps are a range of young fold mountains that runs across eight countries of Europe: France, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, Austria, Monaco and Slovenia.

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Question E.3:

The highest plateau in the world is

a. Deccan
b. Tibet
c. Ethiopian
d. Patagonian

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: A plateau is a large table like landform, with steep sides and flat top. Tibet is the highest plateau in the world. It is also known as the roof of the world.

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Question E.4:

The Victoria Falls are in

a. Europe
b. North America
c. South America
d. Africa

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Located in Southern Africa, Victoria Falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the world.

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Question E.5:

Which of the following is not an example of a volcanic mountain?

a. Mt. Fujiyama
b. Mt. Kanchenjanga
c. Mt. Kalimanjaro
d. Mt. Vesuvius

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Located in eastern Nepal and Sikkim (India), Kanchenjanga is the third highest mountain in the world and the highest mountain in India. It is the highest peak of the Himalayas.

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Question F.1:

Mountains − Himalayas, Alps, Rockies, Andes

Answer:


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Question F.2:

Plateaus − Deccan, Ethiopian, Tibet, Iran, Great Basin, Western Australian

Answer:



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Question F.3:

Plains − Ganga-Brahmaputra, Mississippi-Missouri, Yangtze, Western Siberia

Answer:




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